Family members (Note: these can be used with a variety of post-fixes) (O)tousan=father (the "O" is an honorific used for politeness) (O)kaasan=mother (O)jisan=uncle (not to be confused with (O)jiisan, "old man" or "granfather", orOuji, "prince") (O)basan--aunt as opposed to (O)baasan, "old woman" or "grandmother") (O)niichan=elder brother(O)neechan=elder sister (O)totochan=younger brother Imoutochan=younger sister

Levels of Politeness The Japanese are extremely polite--even when cursing people out. There are different verb forms for "polite" talk and "plain" talk. There are even different verb forms for men and women, children and adults. Unfortunately, the dictionary usually only lists the "plain" form of a verb. Since I don't really speak Japanese, I'm using the verb forms that I've seen in other people's fan fics or the "polite" form of a verb. It makes my life a lot easier.

Numbers ichi=one ni=two san=three shi/yon=numbersfour (yon is used more often because shi also means "death")go=five roku=six shichi/nana=seven (see shi/yon) hachi=eight kyuu=nine juu=ten Note: The Cyborgs (orJinzouningen-"man made men") have the character ºÅ (pronounced gou) after their numbers signifiying "number" whatever.

The Five W's Dare=who Doko=where Dooshite=why Itsu=when Nani=what Naze=how

The Kana "tsu" The annoying little kana that you see in the middle of some words but seems to be silent...I askedKatchan what it was for and she said this: Well, that all depends. 'Tsu' is a wonderfullly difficult character. Sometimes it's pronounced and sometimes *not*. If it's written at about half the size of the other kana, then it's not pronounced -- it's done this way in two different situations: 1) At the end of a sentence. In this case it acts literally as an exclamation mark. The series 'Aa! Megami-sama!' is written in kana (roughly) : aa (small tsu) megamisama (small tsu). Thus in translation or transliteration it comes out Aa! Megami-sama! or Oh! My Goddess! 2) In the middle of a word, preceding a syllable. In this case it doubles the consonant at the beginning of the syllable *following* it. For example -- the word for marriage is 'kekkon'. It is written in kana ke-(small tsu)-ko-n. The small 'tsu' makes the k in 'ko' a double consonant, and thus 'kekkon'. This is the same with any syllable except 'chi', in which case there is no second 'c' added, but a 't' instead, as in 'Katchan' ::grin:: which is written 'ka-(small tsu)-chan.'

The Magic Words Arigatou=thank you (Domo+ and/or +Gozaimasu=very much) Gomen=sorry (+nasai=very) Dou Itashimashite=you're welcome (probably translates more like "think nothing of it") Doozo=pleaseOnegaishimas=Kudasai=please (polite request) Shitsure=Implies some breach of politeness. For example, you sayshitsure shimashita ("sorry for the disturbance") when leaving someone else's house. The present tense, shitsure shimasu ("excuse me, but..."), is used to interrupt a conversation or bring up up a request. Sumimasen=excuse me, pardon me; guys tend to contract this to suman or sumanee

Third Person Pronouns aitsu--a rather rude way of referring to someone, loosely "that fellow over there". kare orkareshi--he/his, although lately it's also used to mean "boyfriend". kanojou--she/hers, also "girlfriend". Generally speaking, these pronouns are not used in polite conversation. Instead, the person is referred to by name; barring that,ano hito ("that person"), ano onna no hito ("that female person"), or ano ko ("that child") is used.

To Be or Not To Be There are three verbs that mean "to be" in Japanese: desu is used to mean "A equals B" or "A has the property of B" arimasu is used with non-living objects to mean "exists", "there is", or "has" imasu is used with living objects to mean "exists" I really don't feel like putting all the verb forms of "be" here, so I'll only put the ones I might use: deshou="presumptive" (assumed to be true) form of be deshita=was da=plain present form of desu