Table of Contents

Spanish I

1. Basic Phrases

2. Pronunciation

3. Alphabet

4. Articles & Demonstratives

5. Subject Pronouns

6. To Be & to Have

7. Question Words

8. Numbers

9. Days of the Week

10. Months of the Year

11. Seasons

12. Directions

13. Colors & Shapes

14. Time

15. Weather

16. Prepositions

17. Family & Animals

18. To Know People & Facts

19. Formation of Plural Nouns

20. Possessive Adjectives

Spanish II

21. To Do / Make

22. Work & School

23. Countries & Nationalities

24. To / In and From places

25. To Come and to Go

26. Common Words

27. Conjugating Regular Verbs

28. Reflexive Verbs

29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs

30. Personal "a"

31. Preterite Tense

32. Irregular Preterite Tense

33. Imperfect Tense

34. Food and Meals

35. Gustar

36. Fruits & Vegetables

37. To Take or Drink

38. Commands

39. More Negatives

40. Holiday Phrases

Mexican National Anthem

Spanish IV

61. Object Pronouns

62. Parts of the Body

63. Asking Questions

64. To Give and To Bring

65. Relative Pronouns

66. Disjunctive Pronouns

67. To Hear and to Smell

68. Animals

69. Suffixes

70. Subjunctive Mood

71. Irregular Subjunctive Mood

72. Uses of the Subjunctive

73. Adverbs

74. Passive Voice

75. Uses of the Infinitive

76. Shopping

77. Post Office and Bank

78. Conditional Tenses

79. Infinitives + Prepositions

80. Office / School Supplies

Spanish III

41. Useful Expressions

42. Present Progressive

43. Haber

44. Present Perfect

45. Places

46. Transportation

47. To Want, Be Able to, Have to

48. Past Perfect

49. House & Furniture

50. Comparative and Superlative

51. Irregular Forms

52. Clothing

53. To Wear

54. Future Tenses

55. Preceding Adjectives

56. More Adjectives

57. Sports and Hobbies

58. Nature

59. To Say and to Go Out

60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino

Spanish V

81. Parts of a Car / Gas Station

82. Travelling / Vacation

83. Cosmetics / Toiletries

84. Other Perfect Tenses

85. Durations of Time

86. Telephone

87. Exclamations

88. Colloquial Expressions

89. Aspects of Actions

90. Verbs of Feeling


1. Basic Phrases
¡Buenos días!
bway-nohs dee-ahs
Hello! / Good morning!
¡Buenas tardes!
bway-nahs tard-ays
Good afternoon!
¡Buenas noches!
bway-nahs noh-chays
Good evening! / Good night!
¡Hola! / ¡Chao!
oh-lah / chow
Hi! / Bye!
Adiós.
ah-dee-ohs
Good bye.
Por favor.
por fah-bor
Please.
Hasta la vista / Hasta luego.
ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go
See you / See you later.
Hasta pronto.
ah-stah prohn-toh
See you soon.
Hasta mañana.
ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah
See you tomorrow.
(Muchas) Gracias.
(moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs
Thank you (very much).
De nada.
day nah-dah
You're welcome.
Bienvenidos
byen-veh-nee-dohs
Welcome
Lo siento
loh see-ehn-toh
I'm sorry
Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe
kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehr-dohn /dees-kool-peh
Excuse me / Pardon me
¡Vamos!
bah-mohs
Let's go!
¿Cómo está usted?
koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted
How are you? (formal)
¿Cómo estás?
koh-moh ay-stahs
How are you? (informal)
¿Qué tal?
kay tahl
How's it going?
Bien / Muy bien
bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn
Good / Very good
Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos
mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs
Bad / Very bad / OK
Sí / No
see / noh
Yes / No
¿Cómo se llama usted?
koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted
What is your name? (formal)
¿Cómo te llamas?
koh-moh tay yah-mahs
What is your name? (informal)
Me llamo... / Mi nombre es...
may yah-moh / mee nohm-breh ess
My name is...
Mucho gusto. / Encantado.
moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahn-tah-doh
Nice to meet you.
Igualmente.
ee-guahl-mehn-tay
Same here. / Same to you.
Señor / Señora / Señorita
sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah
Mister / Mrs. / Miss
¿De dónde es usted?
day dohn-day ehs oo-sted
Where are you from? (formal)
¿De dónde eres?
day dohn-day eh-rehs
Where are you from? (informal)
Yo soy de...
yoh soy day
I'm from...
¿Cuántos años tiene usted?
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted
How old are you? (formal)
¿Cuántos años tienes?
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays
How old are you? (informal)
Yo tengo _____ años.
yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs
I am _____ years old.
¿Habla usted español?
ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol
Do you speak Spanish? (formal)
¿Hablas inglés?
ah-blahs een-glehs
Do you speak English? (informal)
(No) Hablo...
noh ah-bloh
I (don't) speak...
¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes?
ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyen-dehs
Do you understand? (formal / informal)
(No) Entiendo.
noh ehn-tyen-doh
I (don't) understand.
Yo (no lo) se.
yoh noh loh seh
I (don't) know.
¿Puede ayudarme?
pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh
Can you help me? (formal)
Claro / Claro que sí
klah-roh / klah-roh keh see
Sure / Of course
¿Cómo?
koh-moh
What? Pardon me?
¿Dónde está / Dónde están... ?
dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh eh-stahn
Where is ... / Where are ... ?
Aquí / Ahí
ah-kee / ah-ee
Here / There
Hay / Había...
eye / ah-bee-ah
There is / are... / There was / were...
¿Cómo se dice ____ en español?
koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en eh-spahn-yol
How do you say ____ in Spanish?
¿Qué es esto?
keh ehs ehs-toh
What is that?
¿Qué te pasa?
keh teh pah-sah
What's the matter (with you)?
No importa.
noh eem-por-tah
It doesn't matter.
¿Qué pasa?
keh pah-sah
What's happening?
Sin novedad.
seen noh-veh-dahd
Nothing much.
No tengo ninguna idea.
noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah ee-deh-ah
I have no idea.
¡Buena idea!
bweh-nah ee-deh-ah
Good idea!
¡Pase!
pah-seh
Go ahead!
Estoy cansado / enfermo.
eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehr-moh
I'm tired / sick.
Tengo hambre / sed.
tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed
I'm hungry / thirsty.
Tengo calor / frío.
tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh
I'm hot / cold.
Estoy aburrido.
eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh
I'm bored.
No me importa.
noh meh eem-por-tah
I don't care.
No se preocupe.
noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh
Don't worry
Está bien.
ehs-tah bee-ehn
That's alright. / It's ok.
Me olvidé.
meh ohl-vee-deh
I forgot.
Tengo que ir ahora.
tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah
I must go now.
¿Listo?
lees-toh
Ready?
Quizás / Depende.
kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh
Maybe / It depends.
Todavía no.
toh-dah-vee-ah noh
Not yet.
¡Qué chistoso!
keh chees-toh-soh
How funny!
¡Que le vaya bien!
keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn
Have a nice day!
¡Nos vemos!
nohs veh-mos
We'll see you!
¡Salud!
sah-lood
Bless you!
¡Felicitaciones!
feh-lee-see-tah-see-oh-nehs
Congratulations!
¡Buena suerte!
bweh-nah swehr-teh
Good luck!
Te toca a ti.
teh toh-kah ah tee
It's your turn. (informal)
¡Callate!
kah-yah-teh
Shut up!
Te amo.
tay ah-moh
I love you. (informal and singular)

Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Spanish (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.)

Encantado, cansado, enfermo, and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman, then the final o changes to a: encantada, cansada, enferma, and aburrida

In Spain, as well as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Spanish language is calledcastellano instead of español.



2. Pronunciation

Spanish LetterEnglish Sound
aah
eay
iee
ooh
uoo
lly
vb at beginning of word, real soft b between 2 vowels
ñny (as in canyon)
ralmost like a d when in between 2 vowels
rrr with a roll of the tongue
dalmost like a th when in between 2 vowels
jhard h
gg, sometimes a h
quk
ai / all / ayeye
zs
z, ce, cith (in northern Spain only)

The five vowels in Spanish are all pure vowels: [a], [e], [i], [o], [u] Be sure that you do not pronounce a diphthong as we do in English (the extra yuh or wuh sound at the end).

Stress: Just as in English, Spanish stresses a certain syllable in a word. If a word ends in a consonant, except s or n, the stress is on the last syllable. If a word ends in a vowel, or s or n, the stress is on the second-to-last syllable. For words that do no follow these rules, an accent is written over the vowel so that you will know to stress that syllable, as in el pájaro (bird).

Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries, there are several regional dialects and accentsso pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. This tutorial is mostly concerned with the language that is spoken in Mexico and Spain.



3. Alphabet

aahjhoh-tahrair-ay
bbaykkahrrairr-ay
csaylay-laysay-say
chchayllay-yayttay
ddaymay-mayuoo
eaynay-nayvbay chee-kah
fay-fayñayn-yaywvay doh-blay
gheyoohxah-kees
hah-chayppayyee-gree-ay-gah
ieeqkoozsay-tah

The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch, ll or rr to be separate letters in dictionaries, but they are still separate letters in the alphabet. In Spain, you can say oo-bay for v, but in Latin America most dialects just use bay and an adjective, such as chica (Mexico and Peru) or corta (Argentina and Chile).


4. Articles & Demonstratives


Masc. SingularFem. Singular
Masc. PluralFem. Plural
theel (ail)la (lah)thelos (lohs)las (lahs)
a, anun (oon)una (oon-ah)someunos (oon-ohs)unas (oon-ahs)
thisesteestatheseestosestas
thateseesathoseesosesas
thataquelaquellathoseaquellosaquellas

El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable. Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine, with a few exceptions: la mano (hand), la foto (photo). Words that end in -a are generally feminine, with a few exceptions: el mapa (map), el problema (problem). Other feminine words end in -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud.

Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing. Use the aquelforms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing. Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that. They can be used in general and abstract ways. Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun; if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns, which are used before a verb, add an accent on all of the first e's: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas, ése, ésa, ésos, ésas, aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas.


5. Subject Pronouns

yoyohInosotros / nosotrasnoh-soh-trohs / noh-soh-trahswe
tooyou (informal)vosotros / vosotrasboh-soh-trohs / boh-soh-trahsyou all
él / ella /ustedail / ay-yah / oo-stedhe / she / it / you (formal)ellos / ellas /ustedesay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-aysthey / they / you (plural)

Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Nosotras andvosotras refer to a group of all females, as well as ellas. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs.


6. To Be & to Have

ser - to be
present
past
future
soyI amfuíI wasseréI will be
eresyou arefuisteyou wereserásyou will be
eshe/she/it isfuéhe/she/it wasseráhe/she/it will be
somoswe arefuimoswe wereseremoswe will be
soisyou arefuisteisyou wereseréisyou will be
sonthey arefueronthey wereseránthey will be
estar - to be
present
past
future
estoyI amestuveI wasestaréI will be
estásyou areestuvisteyou wereestarásyou will be
estáhe/she/it isestuvohe/she/it wasestaráhe/she/it will be
estamoswe areestuvimoswe wereestaremoswe will be
estáisyou areestuvisteisyou wereestaréisyou will be
estánthey areestuvieronthey wereestaránthey will be
tener - to have
present

past
future
tengoI havetuveI hadtendréI will have
tienesyou havetuvisteyou hadtendrásyou will have
tienehe/she/it hastuvohe/she/it hadtendráhe/she/it will have
tenemoswe havetuvimoswe hadtendremoswe will have
tenéisyou havetuvisteisyou hadtendréisyou will have
tienenthey havetuvieronthey hadtendránthey will have

Highlighted forms are only used in Spain.

Ser is used to identify or describe. It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin. Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.

Uses of Ser

Identify person/object
Inherent characteristics
or qualities
Nationality/Occupation
Telling time
Express ownership
Impersonal expressions
Passive voice
El edificio es un templo.
La casa es grande.
Carlos es pobre.
Es carpintero.
Son las tres.
Los libros son de Juan.
Es necesario.
El teléfono fue inventado por Bell.
The building is a temple.
The house is large.
Charles is poor.
He is a carpenter.
It's three o'clock.
The books are John's.
It is necessary.
The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar

Location/position
Temporary condition/state
State of health
Form progressive tense
El libro está en la mesa.
La ventana está abierta.
Juan está enfermo.
Miguel está estudiando.
The book is on the table.
The window is open.
John is sick.
Michael is studying.

Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring, while estar aburrido means to be bored. Others include: ser bueno - to be nice, estar bueno - to be in good health; ser callado - to be discrete, estar callado - to be silent; ser moreno - to have brown hair, estar moreno - to be tan.

Many common expressions using the verb "be" in English use the verb "tener" in Spanish (but not all):

to be afraidtener miedoto be in a hurrytener prisa, estar de prisa
to be againstestar en contrato be jealoustener celos
to be at faulttener la culpato be luckytener suerte
to be carefultener cuidadoto be patienttener paciencia
to be coldtener fríoto be sleepytener sueño
to be curiousser curioso/ato be successfultener éxito
to be happyestar contento/ato be thirstytener sed
to be hottener calorto be tiredestar cansado/a
to be hungrytener hambreto be ___ years oldtener ___ años


7. Question Words