Spanish Words and Phrases

Table of Contents

Spanish I

1. Basic Phrases

2. Pronunciation

3. Alphabet

4. Articles & Demonstratives

5. Subject Pronouns

6. To Be & to Have

7. Question Words

8. Numbers

9. Days of the Week

10. Months of the Year

11. Seasons

12. Directions

13. Colors & Shapes

14. Time

15. Weather

16. Prepositions

17. Family & Animals

18. To Know People & Facts

19. Formation of Plural Nouns

20. Possessive Adjectives

Spanish II

21. To Do / Make

22. Work & School

23. Countries & Nationalities

24. To / In and From places

25. To Come and to Go

26. Common Words

27. Conjugating Regular Verbs

28. Reflexive Verbs

29. Irregularities in Regular Verbs

30. Personal "a"

31. Preterite Tense

32. Irregular Preterite Tense

33. Imperfect Tense

34. Food and Meals

35. Gustar

36. Fruits & Vegetables

37. To Take or Drink

38. Commands

39. More Negatives

40. Holiday Phrases

Mexican National Anthem

Spanish IV

61. Object Pronouns

62. Parts of the Body

63. Asking Questions

64. To Give and To Bring

65. Relative Pronouns

66. Disjunctive Pronouns

67. To Hear and to Smell

68. Animals

69. Suffixes

70. Subjunctive Mood

71. Irregular Subjunctive Mood

72. Uses of the Subjunctive

73. Adverbs

74. Passive Voice

75. Uses of the Infinitive

76. Shopping

77. Post Office and Bank

78. Conditional Tenses

79. Infinitives + Prepositions

80. Office / School Supplies

Spanish III

41. Useful Expressions

42. Present Progressive

43. Haber

44. Present Perfect

45. Places

46. Transportation

47. To Want, Be Able to, Have to

48. Past Perfect

49. House & Furniture

50. Comparative and Superlative

51. Irregular Forms

52. Clothing

53. To Wear

54. Future Tenses

55. Preceding Adjectives

56. More Adjectives

57. Sports and Hobbies

58. Nature

59. To Say and to Go Out

60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino

Spanish V

81. Parts of a Car / Gas Station

82. Travelling / Vacation

83. Cosmetics / Toiletries

84. Other Perfect Tenses

85. Durations of Time

86. Telephone

87. Exclamations

88. Colloquial Expressions

89. Aspects of Actions

90. Verbs of Feeling


1. Basic Phrases
¡Buenos días! 
bway-nohs dee-ahs 
Hello! / Good morning!
¡Buenas tardes! 
bway-nahs tard-ays 
Good afternoon!
¡Buenas noches! 
bway-nahs noh-chays 
Good evening! / Good night!
¡Hola! / ¡Chao!
oh-lah / chow
Hi! / Bye!
Adiós. 
ah-dee-ohs 
Good bye.
Por favor. 
por fah-bor 
Please.
Hasta la vista / Hasta luego. 
ah-stah lah vees-tah / ah-stah loo-ay-go 
See you / See you later.
Hasta pronto. 
ah-stah prohn-toh 
See you soon.
Hasta mañana. 
ah-stah mahn-yahn-ah 
See you tomorrow.
(Muchas) Gracias. 
(moo-chahs) grah-see-ahs 
Thank you (very much).
De nada.
day nah-dah
You're welcome.
Bienvenidos
byen-veh-nee-dohs
Welcome
Lo siento
loh see-ehn-toh
I'm sorry
Con permiso / Perdón / Disculpe
kohn pehr-mee-soh / pehr-dohn / dees-kool-peh
Excuse me / Pardon me
¡Vamos!
bah-mohs
Let's go!
¿Cómo está usted? 
koh-moh ay-stah oo-sted 
How are you? (formal)
¿Cómo estás? 
koh-moh ay-stahs 
How are you? (informal)
¿Qué tal? 
kay tahl 
How's it going?
Bien / Muy bien 
bee-ehn / moy bee-ehn 
Good / Very good
Mal / Muy mal / Más o menos 
mahl / moy mahl / mahs oh may-nohs 
Bad / Very bad / OK
Sí / No
see / noh
Yes / No
¿Cómo se llama usted? 
koh-moh say yah-mah oo-sted 
What is your name? (formal)
¿Cómo te llamas? 
koh-moh tay yah-mahs 
What is your name? (informal)
Me llamo...  / Mi nombre es...
may yah-moh  / mee nohm-breh ess
My name is...
Mucho gusto. / Encantado.
moo-choh goo-stoh / en-cahn-tah-doh
Nice to meet you.
Igualmente.
ee-guahl-mehn-tay
Same here. / Same to you.
Señor / Señora / Señorita 
sayn-yor / sayn-yor-ah / sayn-yor-ee-tah 
Mister / Mrs. / Miss
¿De dónde es usted? 
day dohn-day ehs oo-sted 
Where are you from? (formal)
¿De dónde eres? 
day dohn-day eh-rehs 
Where are you from? (informal)
Yo soy de... 
yoh soy day 
I'm from...
¿Cuántos años tiene usted? 
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ay-nay oo-sted 
How old are you? (formal)
¿Cuántos años tienes? 
quahn-tohs ahn-yohs tee-ayn-ays 
How old are you? (informal)
Yo tengo _____ años. 
yoh tayn-goh _____ ahn-yohs 
I am _____ years old.
¿Habla usted español?
ah-blah oo-sted eh-spahn-yol
Do you speak Spanish? (formal)
¿Hablas inglés?
ah-blahs een-glehs
Do you speak English? (informal)
(No) Hablo...
noh ah-bloh
I (don't) speak...
¿Entiende usted? / ¿Entiendes?
ehn-tyen-deh oo-sted / ehn-tyen-dehs
Do you understand? (formal / informal)
(No) Entiendo.
noh ehn-tyen-doh
I (don't) understand.
Yo (no lo) se.
yoh noh loh seh
I (don't) know.
¿Puede ayudarme?
pweh-deh ah-yoo-dar-meh
Can you help me? (formal)
Claro / Claro que sí
klah-roh / klah-roh keh see
Sure / Of course
¿Cómo?
koh-moh
What? Pardon me?
¿Dónde está / Dónde están... ?
dohn-deh eh-stah / dohn-deh eh-stahn
Where is ... / Where are ... ?
Aquí / Ahí
ah-kee / ah-ee
Here / There
Hay / Había...
eye / ah-bee-ah
There is / are... / There was / were...
¿Cómo se dice ____ en español?
koh-moh seh dee-seh ___ en eh-spahn-yol
How do you say ____ in Spanish?
¿Qué es esto?
keh ehs ehs-toh
What is that?
¿Qué te pasa?
keh teh pah-sah
What's the matter (with you)?
No importa.
noh eem-por-tah
It doesn't matter.
¿Qué pasa?
keh pah-sah
What's happening?
Sin novedad.
seen noh-veh-dahd
Nothing much.
No tengo ninguna idea.
noh tehn-goh neen-goo-nah ee-deh-ah
I have no idea.
¡Buena idea!
bweh-nah ee-deh-ah
Good idea!
¡Pase!
pah-seh
Go ahead!
Estoy cansado / enfermo.
eh-stoy kahn-sah-doh / ehn-fehr-moh
I'm tired / sick.
Tengo hambre / sed.
tehn-goh ahm-breh / sed
I'm hungry / thirsty.
Tengo calor / frío.
tehn-goh kah-lohr / free-oh
I'm hot / cold.
Estoy aburrido.
eh-stoy ah-boo-ree-doh
I'm bored.
No me importa.
noh meh eem-por-tah
I don't care.
No se preocupe.
noh seh preh-oh-koo-peh
Don't worry
Está bien.
ehs-tah bee-ehn
That's alright. / It's ok.
Me olvidé.
meh ohl-vee-deh
I forgot.
Tengo que ir ahora.
tehn-goh keh eer ah-oh-rah
I must go now.
¿Listo?
lees-toh
Ready?
Quizás / Depende.
kee-sahs / deh-pehn-deh
Maybe / It depends.
Todavía no.
toh-dah-vee-ah noh
Not yet.
¡Qué chistoso!
keh chees-toh-soh
How funny!
¡Que le vaya bien!
keh leh vah-yah bee-ehn
Have a nice day!
¡Nos vemos!
nohs veh-mos
We'll see you!
¡Salud!
sah-lood
Bless you!
¡Felicitaciones!
feh-lee-see-tah-see-oh-nehs
Congratulations!
¡Buena suerte!
bweh-nah swehr-teh
Good luck!
Te toca a ti.
teh toh-kah ah tee
It's your turn. (informal)
¡Callate!
kah-yah-teh
Shut up!
Te amo. 
tay ah-moh 
I love you. (informal and singular)

 

Notice that Spanish has informal and formal ways of speaking. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in Spanish (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.)

Encantado, cansado, enfermo, and aburrido are the masculine forms of the words. If the words refer to a woman or are spoken by a woman, then the final o changes to a: encantada, cansada, enferma, and aburrida

In Spain, as well as Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, the Spanish language is called castellano instead of español.



2. Pronunciation

Spanish Letter English Sound
a ah
e ay
i ee
o oh
u oo
ll y
v b at beginning of word, real soft b between 2 vowels
ñ ny (as in canyon)
r almost like a d when in between 2 vowels
rr r with a roll of the tongue
d almost like a th when in between 2 vowels
j hard h
g g, sometimes a h
qu k
ai / all / ay eye
z s
z, ce, ci th (in northern Spain only)

 

The five vowels in Spanish are all pure vowels: [a], [e], [i], [o], [u] Be sure that you do not pronounce a diphthong as we do in English (the extra yuh or wuh sound at the end).

Stress: Just as in English, Spanish stresses a certain syllable in a word. If a word ends in a consonant, except s or n, the stress is on the last syllable. If a word ends in a vowel, or s or n, the stress is on the second-to-last syllable. For words that do no follow these rules, an accent is written over the vowel so that you will know to stress that syllable, as in el pájaro (bird).

Please keep in mind that because Spanish is spoken in many countries, there are several regional dialects and accents so pronunciation rules may not apply to all countries. This tutorial is mostly concerned with the language that is spoken in Mexico and Spain.



3. Alphabet

a ah j hoh-tah r air-ay
b bay k kah rr airr-ay
c say l ay-lay s ay-say
ch chay ll ay-yay t tay
d day m ay-may u oo
e ay n ay-nay v bay chee-kah
f ay-fay ñ ayn-yay w vay doh-blay
g hey o oh x ah-kees
h ah-chay p pay y ee-gree-ay-gah
i ee q koo z say-tah

 

The Spanish language academy no longer considers the ch, ll or rr to be separate letters in dictionaries, but they are still separate letters in the alphabet. In Spain, you can say oo-bay for v, but in Latin America most dialects just use bay and an adjective, such as chica (Mexico and Peru) or corta (Argentina and Chile).


4.  Articles & Demonstratives


Masc. Singular Fem. Singular
Masc. Plural Fem. Plural
the el  (ail) la  (lah) the los  (lohs) las  (lahs)
a, an un  (oon) una  (oon-ah) some unos  (oon-ohs) unas  (oon-ahs)
this este esta these estos estas
that ese esa those esos esas
that aquel aquella those aquellos aquellas

 

El is also used with feminine nouns beginning with a or ha when the accent is on the first syllable.  Words that end in -o and -or are generally masculine, with a few exceptions: la mano (hand), la foto (photo). Words that end in -a are generally feminine, with a few exceptions: el mapa (map), el problema (problem). Other feminine words end in -ción, -tad, -dad, or -tud.

Use the ese forms to mean that when what you are talking about is near the person you are addressing.  Use the aquel forms when what you are talking about is far from both you and the person you are addressing.  Esto and eso are the neuter forms of this and that.  They can be used in general and abstract ways. Demonstrative adjectives (listed above) are used before a noun; if you want to use the demonstrative pronouns, which are used before a verb, add an accent on all of the first e's: éste, ésta, éstos, éstas, ése, ésa, ésos, ésas, aquél, aquélla, aquéllos, aquéllas.


5. Subject Pronouns

yo yoh I nosotros / nosotras noh-soh-trohs / noh-soh-trahs we
too you (informal) vosotros / vosotras boh-soh-trohs / boh-soh-trahs you all
él / ella / usted ail / ay-yah / oo-sted he / she / it / you (formal) ellos / ellas / ustedes ay-yohs / ay-yahs / oo-sted-ays they / they / you (plural)

 

Vosotros is used only in Spain when speaking to more than one person with whom you know well. Nosotras and vosotras refer to a group of all females, as well as ellas. Ustedes is almost always used for saying "you all" in all Spanish speaking countries. Usted can be abbreviated to Ud. Ustedes can also be abbreviated to Uds. Please note that the subject pronouns are rarely used before verbs.


6. To Be & to Have

ser - to be
present
past
future
soy I am fuí I was seré I will be
eres you are fuiste you were serás you will be
es he/she/it is fué he/she/it was será he/she/it will be
somos we are fuimos we were seremos we will be
sois you are fuisteis you were seréis you will be
son they are fueron they were serán they will be
estar - to be
present
past
future
estoy I am estuve I was estaré I will be
estás you are estuviste you were estarás you will be
está he/she/it is estuvo he/she/it was estará he/she/it will be
estamos we are estuvimos we were estaremos we will be
estáis you are estuvisteis you were estaréis you will be
están they are estuvieron they were estarán they will be
tener - to have
present

past
future
tengo I have tuve I had tendré I will have
tienes you have tuviste you had tendrás you will have
tiene he/she/it has tuvo he/she/it had tendrá he/she/it will have
tenemos we have tuvimos we had tendremos we will have
tenéis you have tuvisteis you had tendréis you will have
tienen they have tuvieron they had tendrán they will have

Highlighted forms are only used in Spain.

 

Ser is used to identify or describe.  It tells what something is, its basic characteristics, or its origin.  Estar is used to tell the location of something or how someone feels.

Uses of Ser

Identify person/object
Inherent characteristics
or qualities
Nationality/Occupation
Telling time
Express ownership
Impersonal expressions
Passive voice
El edificio es un templo.
La casa es grande.
Carlos es pobre.
Es carpintero.
Son las tres.
Los libros son de Juan.
Es necesario.
El teléfono fue inventado por Bell.
The building is a temple.
The house is large.
Charles is poor.
He is a carpenter.
It's three o'clock.
The books are John's.
It is necessary.
The telephone was invented by Bell.

Uses of Estar

Location/position
Temporary condition/state
State of health
Form progressive tense
El libro está en la mesa.
La ventana está abierta.
Juan está enfermo.
Miguel está estudiando.
The book is on the table.
The window is open.
John is sick.
Michael is studying.

 

Sometimes changing the verb can completely change the meaning: ser aburrido means to be boring, while estar aburrido means to be bored. Others include: ser bueno - to be nice, estar bueno - to be in good health; ser callado - to be discrete, estar callado - to be silent; ser moreno - to have brown hair, estar moreno - to be tan.

 

Many common expressions using the verb "be" in English use the verb "tener" in Spanish (but not all):

to be afraid tener miedo to be in a hurry tener prisa, estar de prisa
to be against estar en contra to be jealous tener celos
to be at fault tener la culpa to be lucky tener suerte
to be careful tener cuidado to be patient tener paciencia
to be cold tener frío to be sleepy tener sueño
to be curious ser curioso/a to be successful tener éxito
to be happy estar contento/a to be thirsty tener sed
to be hot tener calor to be tired estar cansado/a
to be hungry tener hambre to be ___ years old tener ___ años


7. Question Words

what qué which cuál(es)
who quién(es) how much cuánto (-a)
how cómo how many cuántos (-as)
when cuándo whom a quién(es)
where dónde whose de quién(es)
why por qué


8. cardinal & ordinal Numbers

0 cero say-roh

1 uno oo-noh first primero
2 dos dohs second segundo
3 tres trays third tercero
4 cuatro kwah-troh fourth cuarto
5 cinco seen-koh fifth quinto
6 seis says sixth sexto
7 siete see-ay-tay seventh séptimo
8 ocho oh-choh eighth octavo
9 nueve new-ay-vay ninth noveno
10 diez dee-ays tenth décimo
11 once ohn-say eleventh undécimo
12 doce doh-say twelfth duodécimo
13 trece tray-say thirteenth décimo tercero
14 catorce kah-tor-say fourteenth décimo cuarto
15 quince keen-say fifteenth décimo quinto
16 diez y seis dee-ays ee says sixteenth décimo sexto
17 diez y siete dee-ays ee see-ay-tay seventeenth décimo séptimo
18 diez y ocho dee-ays ee oh-choh eighteenth décimo octavo
19 diez y nueve dee-ays ee new-ay-vay nineteenth décimo noveno
20 veinte bayn-tay twentieth vigésimo
21 veinte y uno bayn-tay ee oo-noh twenty-first vigésimo primero
22 veinte y dos bayn-tay ee dohs twenty-second vigésimo segundo
30 treinta trayn-tah thirtieth trigésimo
40 cuarenta kuar-ain-tah fortieth cuadragésimo
50 cincuenta seen-kuain-tah fiftieth quincuagésimo
60 sesenta say-sain-tah sixtieth sexagésimo
70 setenta say-tain-tah seventieth septuagésimo
80 ochenta oh-chain-tah eightieth octogésimo
90 noventa noh-bain-tah ninetieth nonagésimo
100 cien(to) see-ain-(toh) hundredth centésimo
1000 mil meel thousandth milésimo

 

If you are just saying 100, you use cien. If it's over 100, you use ciento. So 101 is ciento uno and 156 would be ciento cincuenta y seis. Also you can use dieciséis, diecisiete, dieciocho, and diecinueve for 16, 17, 18, and 19, respectively. They are pronounced the same but are combined into one word. Additionally, 21-29 can be written as one word (veintiuno, veintidós, veintitrés, etc.), but you need to use y for the rest of the numbers.

Primero and tercero drop the final -o when used directly before a noun.


9. Days of the Week

Monday lunes loo-nays
Tuesday martes mar-tays
Wednesday miércoles mee-air-coh-lays
Thursday jueves hway-bays
Friday viernes bee-air-nays
Saturday sábado sah-bah-doh
Sunday domingo doh-ming-oh
day el día dee-ah
week la semana say-mahn-ah
weekend el fin de semana feen day say-mahn-ah
today hoy oy
tonight esta noche es-tah noh-chay
last night anoche ah-noh-chay
yesterday ayer eye-yair
tomorrow mañana mahn-yahn-ah
my birthday mi cumpleaños mee coom-play-ahn-yohs
next próximo / próxima prok-see-moh / mah
last pasado / pasada pah-sah-doh / dah
day before yesterday anteayer ahn-teh-eye-yair
day after tomorrow pasado mañana pah-sah-doh mahn-yahn-ah
the following day el día siguiente dee-ah see-gwee-ehn-teh
the day before la víspera vees-peh-rah

 

Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing. The definite article is not used after the verb ser, but at all other times it is required and there is slight change in meaning if it is singular or plural: el lunes = on Monday but los lunes = on Mondays


10. Months of the Year

January enero  ay-nair-oh   
February febrero  fay-bray-roh 
March marzo  mar-soh 
April abril ah-breel 
May mayo mi-oh
June junio hoo-nee-oh
July julio hoo-lee-oh
August agosto ah-gohs-toh
September septiembre sayp-tee-aim-bray
October octubre ohk-too-bray
November noviembre noh-bee-aim-bray
December diciembre dee-see-aim-bray
month el mes mais
first of [a month] el primero de [month] pree-mair-oh day _____
year el año ahn-yoh
decade la década deh-kah-dah
century el siglo see-gloh
millennium el milenio mee-leh-nee-oh

 

The preposition en is used with months: en abril = in April. Also notice that primero is used for the first of the month, but the rest of the days are referred to using the regular cardinal numbers: el primero de junio but el dos de julio. Months of the year are also all masculine and not capitalized in writing.

¿Cual es la fecha de hoy? What is today's date?
Hoy es el primero de agosto. Today is August 1st.


11. Seasons

spring la primavera in spring en primavera
summer el verano in summer en verano
winter el invierno in winter en invierno
autumn el otoño in autumn en otoño


12. Directions

to the right a la derecha
to the left a la izquierda
straight ahead todo derecho
north el norte northeast el noreste
south el sur northwest el noroeste
east el este southeast el sureste
west el oeste southwest el suroeste


13. Colors & shapes

red rojo / roja circle el círculo 
pink rosado / rosada square el cuadrado
orange anaranjado / anaranjada rectangle el rectángulo
yellow amarillo / amarilla triangle el triángulo
green verde oval el óvalo
blue azul cube el cubo
light blue celeste sphere la esfera
purple morado / morada cylinder el cilindro
violet violeta cone el cono
brown marrón octagon el octágono
black negro / negra box la caja
gray gris pyramid la pirámide
white blanco / blanca    
golden dorado / dorada dark oscuro / oscura
silver plateado / plateada light claro / clara

All adjectives in Spanish are placed after the noun that they describe and they agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun. Notice that some colors do not change for gender (marrón) or number (gris). To change an adjective to the feminine form, you usually just change the final -o to -a. To make an adjective plural, simply add an -s.

a red house = una casa roja


14. Time

¿Qué hora es? What time is it?
Es la una. It's one.
Son las dos/tres/cuatro... It's two/three/four...
Es mediodía. It's noon.
Es medianoche. It's midnight.
Son las cinco y cinco. It's 5:05
Son las ocho y cuarto. It's 8:15
Son las diez menos cuarto. It's 9:45
Son cuarto para las diez. It's 9:45 (common in Mexico)
Son las nueve menos diez. It's 8:50
Son diez para las nueve. It's 8:50 (common in Mexico)
Son las tres y media / treinta. It's 3:30
de la mañana in the morning / AM
de la tarde in the afternoon / PM
de la noche in the evening / PM
en punto exactly / sharp
¿A qué hora? At what time?


15. Weather

¿Qué tiempo hace? What's the weather like?
Hace buen tiempo. The weather's nice.
Hace mal tiempo. The weather's bad.
Hace frío. It's cold.
Hace calor. It's hot.
Hace sol. It's sunny.
Hace viento. It's windy.
Hace fresco. It's chilly.
Está nublado. It's cloudy.
Hay niebla. It's foggy.
Hay neblina. It's misty.
Hay humedad. It's humid.
Hay granizo. It's hailing.
Llueve. It's raining.
Nieva. It's snowing.
Truena. It's thundering.
Llovizna. It's sprinkling.


16. Prepositions

a at, to al lado de beside, alongside of
con with alrededor de around
contra against cerca de near, close to
de of, from lejos de far from
en in, on delante de in front of
entre between, among debajo de below, under
hacia towards, about en frente de opposite
para for, in order, by detrás de behind
por for, through, along, via encima de above, on top of
sobre on, over hasta till, until
sin without desde from, since

 

There are two prepositional contractions with definite articles.  A and el combine to form al, and de and el combine to form del.


17. Family & Animals

family la familia cousin (m) el primo
parents los padres cousin (f) la prima
husband el marido / el esposo cousins los primos
wife la mujer / la esposa relatives los parientes
father / dad el padre / el papá stepfather el padastro
mother / mom la madre / la mamá stepmother la madrastra
son el hijo stepbrother el hermanastro
daughter la hija stepsister la hermanastra
children los hijos stepson el hijastro
brother el hermano stepdaughter la hijastra
sister la hermana godfather el padrino
brothers & sisters los hermanos godmother la madrina
only child (m) el hijo único baby el bebé
only child (f) la hija única teenager el adolescente
kid / boy el muchacho boy el niño
kid / girl la muchacha girl la niña
half-brother el medio hermano boys & girls los niños
half-sister la media hermana man el hombre
father-in-law el suegro woman la mujer
mother-in-law la suegra adult el adulto
brother-in-law el cuñado twins (m) los gemelos
sister-in-law la cuñada twins (f) las gemelas
son-in-law el yerno dog el perro
daughter-in-law la nuera cat el gato
grandfather el abuelo bird el pájaro
grandmother la abuela fish el pez
grandparents los abuelos gold fish la carpa dorada
grandson el nieto horse el caballo
granddaughter la nieta goat la cabra
grandchildren los nietos pig el cerdo
uncle el tío cow la vaca
aunt la tía rabbit el conejo
aunts & uncles los tíos turtle la tortuga
nephew el sobrino mouse el ratón
niece la sobrina deer el ciervo
nieces & nephews los sobrinos duck el pato

 


18. To Know People & Facts

conocer - to know people saber - to know facts
conozco conocemos sabemos
conoces conocéis sabes sabéis
conoce conocen sabe saben


19. Formation of Plural Nouns

  1. If a singular noun ends in a vowel, just add -s to make it plural: la casa → las casas
  2. If a singular noun ends in a consonant, a vowel with an accent, or y, add -es to make it plural: el papel → los papeles
  3. Singular nouns that end in -z change the z to c and add -es to form the plural: la luz → las luces
  4. A few nouns that have an accent in the singular will lose it in the plural: el lápiz → los lápices


20. Possessive Adjectives


Initial Forms

Terminal Forms

  singular plural singular plural
my mi mis mío / mía míos / mías
your tu tus tuyo / tuya tuyos / tuyas
your/his/her/its su sus suyo / suya suyos / suyas
our nuestro / nuestra nuestros / nuestras nuestro / nuestra nuestros / nuestras
your vuestro / vuestra vuestros / vuestras vuestro / vuestra vuestros / vuestras
your/their su sus suyo / suya suyos / suyas

 

Remember that vuestro forms are only used in Spain (just as the vosotros subject pronoun & verb conjugations are only used in Spain).

Because su and sus can have so many meanings, de + a pronoun may be used following the noun:  de Ud., de él, de ella, de Uds., de ellos and de ellas.

los libros de ellos  their books

The terminal forms are placed after the noun, and the noun must be preceded by the definite article, except in direct address.  When used with the indefinite article, it corresponds to the English "of mine, of yours," etc.

el libro mío  my book
Qué haces, hijo mío?  What are you doing, my son?
un amigo mío  a friend of mine

21. To Do / Make Listen to MP3

hacer - to do or make
hago hacemos
haces hacéis
hace hacen


22. Work & School Listen to MP3

accountant el contador musician el músico
actor / actress el actor / la actriz nurse el enfermero
architect el arquitecto official / civil servant el funcionario
author el autor optician el óptico
baker el panadero painter el pintor
banker el banquero pharmacist (chemist) el químico
barber el barbero pharmacist el farmacéutico
bookseller el librero photographer el fotógrafo
businessman el comerciante pilot el piloto
butcher el carnicero plumber el fontanero
carpenter el carpintero policeman el agente de policía
computer programmer el programador postman el cartero
cook el cocinero priest el cura
customer el cliente professor el profesor
dentist el dentista publisher el editor
doctor el médico / el doctor salesman el vendedor
electrician el electricista scientist el científico
employee el empleado secretary la secretaria
engineer el ingeniero servant el criado
firefighter el bombero shoemaker el zapatero
fisherman el pescador singer el cantante
gardener el jardinero soldier el soldado
grocer el dependiente student el estudiante
hair stylist el peluquero surgeon el cirujano
jeweler el joyero tailor el sastre
journalist el periodista teacher el profesor
judge el juez teacher (grade school) el maestro
lawyer el abogado typist el mecanógrafo
librarian el bibliotecario waiter / server el camarero
mason el albañil watchmaker el relojero
mechanic el mecánico worker (blue-collar) el obrero
model el modelo writer el escritor


Listen to MP3

accounting la contabilidad law el derecho
algebra el álgebra linguistics la lingüística
architecture la arquitectura literature la literatura
art el arte mathematics la matématica
astronomy la astronomía medicine la medicina
biology la biología modern languages las lenguas modernas
botany la botánica music la música
business el comercio natural science las ciencias naturales
chemistry la química painting la pintura
computing (IT) la informática philosophy la filosofía
drawing el dibujo physical education la educación física
earth science la ciencia terrestre physical science las ciencas físicas
economics la económia physics la física
engineering la ingeniería political science las ciencias políticas
English el inglés Portuguese el portugués
French el francés psychology la psicología
geography la geografía religious education la enseñanza religiosa
geometry la geometría science la ciencia
German el alemán sociology la sociología
Greek el griego Spanish el español
history la historia technology la technología
Italian el italiano zoology la zoología
Latin el latín


23. Countries & Nationalities Listen to MP3

Africa el Africa Indonesia Indonesia
African africano/a Indonesian indonesio/a
Albania Albania Ireland la Irlanda
Albanian albano/a Irishman irlandés/esa
America la América Israel Israel
American americano/a Israeli israelí
Argentina la Argentina Hebrew hebreo/a
Argentine argentino/a Italy Italia
Asia el Asia (f) Italian italiano/a
Asian asiático/a Japan Japón
Australia Australia Japanese japonés/esa
Australian australiano/a Latvia Letonia
Austria el Austria (f) Latvian letón/ona
Austrian austríaco/a Lithuania Lituania
Belgium la Bélgica Lithuanian lituano/a
Belgian belga Luxembourg Luxemburgo
Bolivia la Bolivia Luxembourger luxemburgués/esa
Bolivian boliviano(a) Macedonia Macedonia
Bosnia la Bosnia Macedonian macedonio/a
Bosnian bosnio/a Malta Malta
Brazil el Brasil Maltese maltés/esa
Brazilian brasileño/a Mexico México
Bulgaria la Bulgaria Mexican mexicano/a
Bulgarian búlgaro/a Netherlands los Países Bajos
Canada Canadá Dutch holandés/esa
Canadian canadiense New Zealand Nueva Zelanda
China China New Zealander neozelandés/esa
Chinese chino/a Nicaragua Nicaragua
Chile la Chile Nicaraguan nicaragüense
Chilean chileno/a Norway Noruega
Colombia Colombia Norwegian noruego/a
Colombian colombiano/a Panama Panama
Costa Rica la Costa Rica Panamanian panameño/a
Costa Rican costarricense Paraguay Paraguay
Croatia la Croacia Paraguayan paraguayo/a
Croatian croata Peru Perú
Cuba la Cuba Peruvian peruano/a
Cuban cubano/a Poland la Polonia
Czech Republic la República Checa Polish polaco/a
Czech checo/a Portugal Portugal
Denmark Dinamarca Portuguese portugués/esa
Danish danés/esa Romania Rumania
Dominican Republic República Dominicana Romanian rumano/a
Dominican dominicano/a Russia Rusia
Ecuador Ecuador Russian ruso/a
Ecuadorian ecuatoriano/a Scotland la Escocia
Egypt Egipto Scottish escocés/esa
Egyptian egipcio/a Serbia Serbia
El Salvador El Salvador Serbian serbio/a
Salvadorean salvadoreño Slovakia la República Eslovaca
England la Inglaterra Slovak eslovaco/a
English inglés/esa Slovenia Eslovenia
Estonia Estonia Slovene esloveno/a
Estonian estonio/a South Africa Sudáfrica
Europe la Europa South African sudafricano/a
European europeo/a Spain España
Finland Finlandia Spanish español/a
Finnish finlandés/esa Sweden Suecia
France Francia Swedish sueco/a
French francés/esa Switzerland la Suiza
Germany Alemania Swiss suizo/a
German alemán/ana  Turkey la Turquía
Great Britain la Gran Bretaña Turk turco/a
British británico/a Ukraine Ucrania
Greece Grecia Ukrainian ucraniano/a
Greek griego/a United Kingdom Reino Unido
Guatemala Guatemala United States Estados Unidos
Guatemalan guatemalteco/a Uruguay Uruguay
Honduras Honduras Uruguayan uruguayo/a
Honduran hondureño Venezuela Venezuela
Hungary Hungría Venezuelan venezolano/a
Hungarian húngaro/a Wales el país de Gales
Iceland Islandia Welsh galés/esa
Icelandic islandés/esa

India India

Indian indio/a


24. To / In and From Listen to MP3

to a
from de
in en

 

Remember to use the prepositional contractions when a noun with an article follows the preposition.


25. To Come & to Go Listen to MP3

 

venir - to come ir - to go
vengo venimos voy vamos
vienes venís vas vais
viene vienen va van


26. Common Words Listen to MP3

a lot mucho always siempre
very much muchísimo everyday todos los días
a little poco now ahora
very little muy poco usually usualmente
sometimes a veces there ahí
well bien over there allí
after después too bad demasiado malo
poorly mal


27. Conjugating Regular Verbs Listen to MP3

Verbs in Spanish end in -ar, -er or -ir.  Before a verb is conjugated, it is called the infinitive.  Removing the last two letters gives you the stem of the verb (cantar is the infinitive to sing, while cant- is the stem.)  To conjugate regular verbs in the present tense, add these endings to the stems:

-ar
-er
-ir
o amos
o emos
o imos
as áis
es éis
es ís
a an
e en
e en

 

Remember that verbs do not require the subject pronouns, so just canto means I sing.  Here are some more regular verbs:

-ar verbs
-er verbs
-ir verbs
bailar to dance
aprender to learn
vivir to live
desear to want
comer to eat
escribir to write
escuchar to listen
correr to run
compartir to share
estudiar to study
leer to read
recibir to receive
hablar to speak
vender to sell


practicar to practice
beber to drink


tomar to take
comprender to understand


viajar to travel






To make sentences negative, simply put no in front of the verb.


28. Reflexive Verbs

The subject and the object are the same with reflexive verbs - the subject acts upon itself.  A reflexive verb in Spanish will be marked with se attached to the end of the infinitive.  These verbs are conjugated like regular verbs, except the reflexive pronoun agrees with case and gender and precedes the verb when not used in the infinitive form.  Reciprocal verbs are the same as reflexive except the action passes from one person to another.  It can only be used in the first and third person plural forms.  Reflexive verbs sometimes use the "-self" forms in English, while the reciprocal verbs use "each other."

reflexive pronouns
me nos
te os
se se

Some common reflexive verbs:

acostarse - to go to bed
bañarse - to bathe oneself
casarse - to get married
despertarse - to wake up
irse - to go away
levantarse - to rise
sentarse - to sit down
vestirse - to dress oneself
atreverse - to dare
quejarse - to complain


29. Irregular Conjugations Listen to MP3

Some verbs have vowel changes in the present tense for all forms except first and second person plural.  After dropping the endings (-ar, -er, or -ir), the e of the last syllable changes to ie, and o of the last syllable changes to ue.  Some -ir verbs change the e to i, while verbs ending in -uir change the i to y for all forms except first and second plural.

e to ie o to ue e to i ui to uy
pensar - to think
querer - to want, like, love
cerrar - to close
comenzar - to begin
despertar - to awaken
empezar - to begin
entender - to understand
perder - to lose
preferir - to prefer
sentar - to seat
sentir - to regret, feel
contar - to count
poder - to be able
costar - to cost
dormir - to sleep
encontrar - to find, meet
jugar - to play
morir - to die
mostrar - to show
volar - to fly
volver - to return

pedir - to ask (for)
repetir - to repeat
seguir - to follow
servir - to serve
vestir - to dress





construir - to build

pensar contar pedir construir
pienso

pensamos

cuento

contamos

pido

pedimos

construyo

construimos
piensas pensáis cuentas contáis pides pedís construyes construís
piensa piensan cuenta cuentan pide piden construye construyen

 

A few other verbs are irregular only in the first person singular form. The rest of the forms follow the regular pattern:

traer to carry traigo I carry
salir to go out salgo I go out
hacer to do hago I do
saber to know I know
dar to give doy I give
ver to see veo I see
tener to have tengo I have
poner to put pongo I put
decir to say digo I say
valer to be worth valgo I am worth
caer to fall caigo I fall
conocer to know conozco I know
deducir to deduce deduzco I deduce

 

Generally, verbs that end in -cer and -cir add z before the first person singular ending.


30. Personal a Listen to MP3

When the direct object of a verb (except tener) is a person, it is preceded by a.  It isn't used if a number precedes the object though.  The pronouns alguien (somebody), alguno (someone), nadie (nobody), and ninguno (no one) require a as well, when used as the direct object.

Veo a Juan.  I see John.
Conozco a tu amiga. I know your friend.
Veo a alguien.  I see somebody.


31. Preterite Tense Listen to MP3

The preterite tense expresses an action in the past.  It is used to describe events that are finished or complete.  It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

-ar verbs
-er and -ir verbs


-amos




-imos
-aste -asteis
-iste -isteis
-aron
-ió -ieron

 

Viví en España dos años.  I lived in Spain for two years.
Ellos hablaron con los niños.  They spoke with the children.
Quién comió la fruta?  Who ate the fruit?


32. Irregular Preterite Tense Listen to MP3

A few verbs are irregular in the preterite tense.  The following are the most common:

dar - to give
decir - to say, tell
estar - to be
di
diste
dio
dimos
disteis
dieron

dije
dijiste
dijo
dijimos
dijisteis
dijeron

estuve
estuviste
estuvo
estuvimos
estuvisteis
estuvieron
hacer - to do, make
ir - to go / ser- to be
poner - to put, place
hice
hiciste
hizo
hicimos
hicisteis
hicieron

fui
fuiste
fue
fuimos
fuisteis
fueron

puse
pusiste
puso
pusimos
pusisteis
pusieron
tener - to have
traer - to bring
venir - to come
tuve
tuviste
tuvo
tuvimos
tuvisteis
tuvieron

traje
trajiste
trajo
trajimos
trajisteis
trajeron

vine
viniste
vino
vinimos
vinisteis
vinieron

 

Ir and ser have the same forms in the preterite tense. Context will make the meaning clear.


33. Imperfect Tense Listen to MP3

The imperfect is another past tense that is used to express an action as going on in the past, as repeated or habitual.  It is also used with mental and physical conditions and for descriptions.  The preterite tense is used much more often than the imperfect tense though, except with these verbs:  querer, creer, poder, esperar, tener, and saber.  It is formed by adding these endings to the infinitive stem.

-ar verbs
-er and -ir verbs
-aba

-ábamos


-ía

-íamos
-abas -abais
-ías -íais
-aba -aban
-ía -ían

 

Yo vivía en España.  I used to live in Spain.
Luisa estaba triste.  Louise was sad.
El vendía radios.  He was selling radios.

Only a few verbs are irregular in the imperfect tense:

ser - to be
ir - to go
ver - to see
era
eras
era
éramos
erais
eran

iba
ibas
iba
íbamos
ibais
iban

veía
veías
veía
veíamos
veíais
veían


34. Food and Meals Listen to MP3

bacon  el tocino salad  la ensalada 
beef  la carne de vaca salami  el salchichón 
beer  la cerveza  salt  la sal 
beverage  la bebida  sandwich  el bocadillo 
biscuit  el bizcocho  sauce  la salsa 
bread  el pan  sausage  la salchicha
breakfast  el desayuno  soft drink  el refresco gaseoso 
butter  la mantequilla  soup  la sopa 
cake  la torta  sour cream  la crema agria 
candy  los dulces  steak  el bistec 
cheese  el queso  stew  el guisado 
chicken  el pollo  sugar  el azúcar 
chocolate  el chupete  supper  la cena 
chop  la chuleta  tea (iced)  el té (helado) 
coffee  el café  toast  las tostadas 
cookie  la galleta  turkey  el pavo
cottage cheese  el requesón  veal  la ternera 
cotton candy  el algodón de azúcar  vegetable  la legumbre 
cream  la crema  vinegar  el vinagre 
custard  las natillas  water  el agua 
dessert  el postre  whipped cream  la nata montada 
dinner  la comida  wine   el vino
duck  el pato yogurt  el yogur
egg  el huevo  bag  la bolsa
fat  la grasa  bowl  el tázon
flour  la harina  bottle  la botella
fried eggs  los huevos fritos  box  la caja
goose  el ganso can  la lata
ham  el jamón can opener  abrelatas
hamburger  la hamburguesa  carton  el tetrabrik
honey  la miel  chopsticks  los palillos
hot dog  el perro caliente  coffee pot  la cafetera
ice  el hielo  colander  el colador
ice cream  el helado  corkscrew  el sacacorchos
jam  la jalea  cup  la taza
juice  el jugo  dish  el plato
lamb  el cordero fork  el tenedor
lobster  la langosta frying pan  la sartén
lollipop  el chupete  glass  el vaso
lunch   el almuerzo   jar  el tarro
meal  la comida  jug  la jarra
meat  la carne  kettle  la caldera
milk  la leche  knife  el cuchillo
milkshake  la malteada  lid  la tapa
mustard  la mostaza  napkin  la servilleta
mutton  la carne de carnero  plate  el plato
oil  el aceite  saucer  el platillo
omelet  la tortilla  saucepan  la cacerola / el cazo
pepper  la pimienta  spoon  la cuchara
pie  el pastel  spray can  el spray
pork  el cerdo table  la mesa
rice  el arroz  tablecloth  el mantel
roast  el asado  teapot  la tetera
roll  el panecillo  tube  el tubo


35. Gustar Listen to MP3

Gustar plus a noun means to like something.  Literally, it means to please and takes an indirect object, so the construction of the sentence will be different than that of English. The verb will only be conjugated in the third person singular or plural because it is agreeing with the noun or infinitive that follows it, not the subject.

Me gusta(n) I like
Nos gusta(n) we like
Te gusta(n) you like
Os gusta(n) you like
Le gusta(n) you/he/she likes
Les gusta(n) you/they like

 

Gusta is used with singular nouns or an infinitive, while gustan is used with plural nouns. It is also possible to add a + complement pronoun to emphasize the subject, but this is not necessary. The complement pronouns are the same as the suject pronouns except a mí and a ti.

Me gustan las flores.  I like the flowers.  (Literally: To me are pleasing the flowers or the flowers are pleasing to me.)
A nosotros nos gusta la casa.  We like the house.
No me gusta.  I don't like it.
Le gusta a Ud.?  Do you like it?
A ellos les gustan los caballos. They like the horses.


36. Fruits & Vegetables Listen to MP3

almond la almendra barley la cebada
apple la manzana beans  los frijoles / las judías
apricot el albaricoque beet  la remolacha 
avocado el aguacate broccoli el brócoli
banana el plátano cabbage la col
berry la baya carrot la zanahoria
blackberry la zarzamora cauliflower la coliflor
blueberry el arándano celery el apio
cherry la cereza chives la cebollana
chestnut la castaña corn el maíz
coconut el coco cucumber el pepino
currant la grosella eggplant la berenjena
date el dátil garlic el ajo
fig il higo green bean  la habichuela 
fruit la fruta herbs le hierba
grapefruit el pomelo horse-radish el rabano picante
grapes la uva leek el puerro
hazelnut la avellana lentil la lenteja
kiwi el kiwi lettuce la lechuga
lemon el limón mint la menta
lime la lima mushroom la seta / el hongo
lychee el lichi oats la avena
mango el mango onion la cebolla
melon el melón parsley el perejil
olive la aceituna pea el guisante
orange la naranja pepper el pimiento
papaya la papaya potato la patata / la papa
peach el melocotón pumpkin la calabaza
pear la pera radish el rábano
pineapple la piña rhubarb  el ruibarbo 
plum la ciruela rice el arroz
prune la ciruela pasa rye el centeno
raisin la uva pasa sage la salvia
raspberry la frambuesa seed la semilla
starfruit la carambola spinach la espinaca
strawberry la fresa sweet potato  el camote / la batata
walnut la nuez tomato el tomate
watermelon la sandía turnip el nabo
artichoke la alcachofa wheat el trigo
asparagus el espárrago zucchini el calabacín

 

Los frijoles is used in South America, whereas las judías is used in Spain.


37. To Take or Drink Listen to MP3

tomar - to take or drink
tomo

tomamos
tomas tomáis
toma toman


When tomar means to drink, it usually refers to alcohol. In Mexico, tomar can be intransitive, as beber is almost never used. In Spain, tomar is always transitive, such as tomar una copa - to have a drink and tomar un café - to have a coffee.


38. Commands / Imperative Listen to MP3

To form commands, drop the final -s on the present tense conjugation for the tú form and change the final -r of the infinitive to -d for the vosotros form.  The other imperative conjugations (for Usted, Ustedes, and nosotros) use the present subjunctive forms. (More about the Subjunctive at #70.) You use the nosotros form when you mean Let's + infinitive. Negative commands use no + the present subjunctive conjugations for all forms. So the only forms that differ between affirmative and negative commands are tú and vosotros. Verbs that end in -car, -gar and -zar have the following changes in commands as well:  c becomes qu, g becomes gu, and z becomes c.


Affirmative
Negative

-ar -er or -ir
-ar -er or -ir
-a -e
-es -as
Usted -e -a
-e -a
nosotros -emos -amos
-emos -amos
vosotros -ad -ed / -id
-éis -áis
Ustedes -en -an
-en -an

 

¡Habla!  = Speak!  (tú form)
¡Comed! = Eat!  (vosotros form)
¡No comáis! = Don't eat!  (negative vosotros form)
¡Beba! = Drink!  (Usted form)
¡Coman! = Eat (Ustedes form)
¡No beban! = Don't drink! (negative Ustedes form)

There are 8 irregular verbs in the imperative, but they are only irregular for the tú form. The rest of the commands follow the pattern above.

infinitive tú form
decir
hacer
ir
poner
salir
ser
tener
venir
di
haz
ve
pon
sal

ten
ven

 

There are several irregular stems that appear in the present subjunctive, and therefore in the imperative.

infinitive imperative stem
dar d-
decir dig-
estar est-
haber hay-
hacer hag-
ir vay-
poder pued-
poner pong-
querer quier-
saber sep-
salir salg-
ser se-
tener teng-
traer traig-
venir veng-


39. More Negatives Listen to MP3

To make sentences negative, you place no before the verb.  Other negatives may precede or follow the verb, but if they follow, they must follow a negative verb (a double negative).  The word order is either no + verb + negative or negative + verb. Nunca means ever when it follows a comparative; jamás means ever when it follows an affirmative verb. Ya no + verb means the same thing as no + verb + más (no more, no longer).

más no more, no longer
nada nothing, (not) anything
nadie nobody, (not) anybody
ninguno (a) no, none
tampoco neither, either
ni nor
ni...ni neither... nor
ni siquiera not even
nunca, jamás never, ever

 

No bailas nunca. = Nunca bailas. You never dance.
No juego más. = Ya no juego. I no longer play.


40. Holiday Phrases Listen to MP3

Feliz Navidad Merry Christmas
Feliz Año Nuevo Happy New Year
Feliz Cumpleaños Happy Birthday
Feliz Pascua Happy Easter


Spanish National Anthem: Marcha Real

There are no words to the Spanish national anthem; it is completely instrumental.

Mexican National Anthem: Mexicanos, al Grito de Guerra

by Francisco González Bocanegra

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridón;
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

Ciña ¡oh patria! tus sienes de oliva
De la Paz el arcángel divino,
Que en el cielo tu eterno destino
Por el dedo de Dios se escribió.
Mas si osare un extraño enemigo
Profanar con su planta tu suelo,
Piensa ¡oh patria querida! que el cielo
Un soldado en cada hijo te dio.

¡Guerra, guerra sin tregua al que intente
De la patria manchar los blasones!
¡Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones
En las olas de sangre empapad.
¡Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle
Los cañones horrísonos truenen
Y los ecos sonoros resuenen
Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad!

Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos
Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen,
Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen,
Sobre sangre se estampe su pie.
Y tus templos, palacios y torres
Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo,
Y sus ruinas existan diciendo:
De mil héroes la patria aquí fue.

¡Patria! ¡patria! Tus hijos te juran
Exhalar en tus aras su aliento,
Si el clarín con su bélico acento
Los convoca a lidiar con valor.
¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva!
¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria!
¡Un laurel para ti de victoria!
¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!

Mexicanos, al grito de guerra
El acero aprestad y el bridón,
y retiemble en sus centros la tierra
Al sonoro rugir del cañón.

Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

Your forehead shall be girded, oh fatherland, with olive garlands
by the divine archangel of peace,
For in heaven your eternal destiny
has been written by the hand of God.
But should a foreign enemy
Profane your land with his sole,
Think, beloved fatherland, that heaven
gave you a soldier in each son.

War, war without truce against who would attempt
to blemish the honor of the fatherland!
War, war! The patriotic banners
saturate in waves of blood.
War, war! On the mount, in the vale
The terrifying cannon thunder
and the echoes nobly resound
to the cries of union! liberty!

Fatherland, before your children become unarmed
Beneath the yoke their necks in sway,
May your countryside be watered with blood,
On blood their feet trample.
And may your temples, palaces and towers
crumble in horrid crash,
and their ruins exist saying:
The fatherland was made of one thousand heroes here.

Fatherland, fatherland, your children swear
to exhale their breath in your cause,
If the bugle in its belligerent tone
should call upon them to struggle with bravery.
For you the olive garlands!
For them a memory of glory!
For you a laurel of victory!
For them a tomb of honor!

Mexicans, at the cry of battle
lend your swords and bridle;
and let the earth tremble at its center
upon the roar of the cannon.

41. Useful Expressions
Hay There is/are
Había There was/were
Hay que + infinitive It is necessary to + infinitive
Tener que + infinitive To have to + infinitive
Ir a + infinitive To go to + infinitive
Acabar de + infinitive To have just + past participle
Hace + time time + ago


42. Progressive Tenses

The progressive tense indicates an action that is ongoing.  It is formed by using estar (in any tense) with a present participle.  Present participles are formed by dropping the ending of the verb, and adding the following endings to the stem:

Present Participles
-ar -ando
-er -iendo
-ir -iendo

Juan está hablando.  Josh is talking.
Estaban cantando.  They were singing.
Estuve escribiendo una carta.  I was writing a letter.

A few irregular present participles: poder - pudiendo, dormir - durmiendo, sentir - sintiendo, venir - viniendo, pedir - pidiendo, leer - leyendo, ir - yendo, reír - riendo.


43. Haber

Haber - to have
he
has
ha
hemos
habéis
han

This verb does not mean to possess (that is tener); but it is used in past tenses as an auxiliary verb.


44. Present Perfect

The present perfect tense is a compound tense using haber with a past participle.  (Haber is only used as a helping verb; it is never used to show possession.)  This tense can be translated as have or has done something.  Please note that the preterite tense is used more often than this tense when expressing the past.

Past participles are formed by dropping the infinitive ending, and adding these endings:

Past Participles
-ar
-er
-ir
-ado
-ido
-ido

The following verbs have irregular past participles:  abrir (to open) - abierto (opened); escribir (to write) - escrito (written); morir (to die) - muerto (died); poner (to put) - puesto (put); ver (to see) - visto (seen); volver (to return) - vuelto (returned); decir (to say) - dicho (said); hacer (to do) - hecho (done).

No han vendido la casa.  They have not sold the house.
Dónde ha puesto Ud. la llave?  Where have you put the key?
Hemos gastado mucho dinero.  We have spent a lot of money.
Qué ha dicho Ud.?  What did you say?


45. Places

airport el aeropuerto embassy la embajada pier el muelle
bakery la panadería factory la fábrica police station la comisaría
bank el banco farm la granja port el puerto
bar el bar fire hydrant la boca de agua prison la prisión
barn el granero fountain la fuente restaurant el restaurante
barracks el cuartel garage el garaje road (highway) la carretera / la vía
bench el banco grocery store el supermercado school la escuela
bridge el puente hospital el hospital sidewalk la acera
bookstore la librería hotel el hotel square la plaza
building el edificio house la casa stable la cuadra
butcher's la carnicería hut la cabaña stadium el estadio
castle el castillo inn la posada stop sign la señal de alto
cathedral la catedral lane (town) la calleja store la tienda
cemetery el cementerio library la biblioteca street la calle
church la iglesia market el mercado suburb el barro residencial
cinema el cine ministry el ministerio theater el teatro
consulate el consulado monument el monumento tower la torre
corner la esquina museum el museo town la ciudad
courtyard el patio palace el palacio town hall el ayuntamiento
crosswalk el cruce peatonal path la senda traffic light el semáforo
dock la dársena pavement la acera university la universidad
dry cleaner's la tintorería pharmacy la farmacia village el pueblo


46. Transportation

by bus en autobús
by bicycle en bicicleta
by car en coche
by motorcycle en motocicleta
by subway en metro
by taxi en taxi
by plane en avión
by train en tren
by boat en barco
on foot a pie


47. To Want, to Be Able to, to Have to

querer-to want

poder-to be able to, can

deber-to have to, must
quiero queremos

puedo podemos

debo debemos
quieres queréis

puedes podéis

debes debéis
quiere quieren

puede pueden

debe deben


48. Past Perfect

The past perfect tense corresponds to the English "had + past participle."  It indicates an event that happened prior to another event in the past.  It consists of the imperfect of haber and a past participle.  Sometimes the preterite of haber is used, but the imperfect is more common.

Carlos había vivido en México.  Carlos had lived in Mexico.
Habíamos aprendido el español.  We had learned Spanish.


49. House & Furniture

alarm clock el despertador drawer el cajón pipe la pipa
armchair el sillón dresser el tocador pipe (water) el tubo
ashtray el cenicero driveway la entrada del garaje poker el atizador
attic el desván DVD player el lector de DVD radio la radio
balcony el balcón fence la cerca record el disco
basement el sótano film la película refrigerator el refrigerador
basket la cesta fire el fuego roof el tejado
bathroom el baño flame la llama room el cuarto
bathtub la bañera flashlight la linterna rug la alfombra
batteries las pilas flat el apartamento sheet la sábana
bed la cama floor el suelo shelf el estante
bedroom la alcoba / el dormitorio floor (levels) el piso / la planta shovel la pala
bell (door) la campanilla flower la flor shower la ducha
blanket la cobija freezer el congelador sideboard el aparador
blinds la persiana front walk la vereda sink el fregadero
bookcase la librería furniture los muebles sink (bathroom) el lavabo
box la caja garage el garaje sitting room la sala
broom la escoba garden el jardín smoke el humo
bucket el balde ground floor la planta baja sofa el sofá
camcorder la cámara hearth la chimenea stairs las escaleras
camera la máquina de fotos hook el gancho steps los escalones
candle la vela house la casa story el piso
carpet la alfombra iron (flat) la plancha stove la estufa
cassette la cinta kerosene el petróleo study el estudio
CD player el lector de CD key la llave switch el conmutador
ceiling el techo kitchen la cocina table la mesa
chair la silla ladder la escalera tap (faucet) el grifo
chimney la chimenea lamp la lámpara telephone el teléfono
cigar el puro / el cigarro lawn el césped television el televisor
cigarette el cigarrillo light bulb la bombilla toaster la tostadora
clock el reloj living room la sala toilet (WC) el inodoro
closet el armario lock la cerradura towel la toalla
compact disc el disco compacto mailbox el buzón vacuum cleaner el aspirador
computer la computadora matches las cerillas vase el jarrón
corner el rincón mattress el colchón VCR el magnetoscopio
cupboard la alacena microwave oven el horno microondas wall (house) el muro
curtain la cortina mirror el espejo wall (room) la pared
cushion el cojín oven el horno window la ventana
desk el escritorio pantry la despensa yard el jardín
dining room el comedor picture el cuadro    
door la puerta pillow la almohada    


50. Comparative and Superlative

Comparisons are expressed as follows:

más [adjective] que
menos [adjective] que
tan [adjective] como
tanto(-a, -os, -as) [noun] como
more [adjective] than
less [adjective] than
as [adjective] as
as much/many [noun] as

El gato es menos inteligente que el perro.  The cat is less intelligent than the dog.
Mi prima tiene más discos que nadie.  My cousin has more records than anyone.
No tengo tanto dinero como ustedes.  I don't have as much money as you.

To form comparatives, just add más or menos before the adjective or adverb.  To form the superlative, place the definite article before the comparative.  Note that de is used to express in after a superlative.

más alta  taller
la más alta  the tallest
Rosa es la niña más alta de la clase.  Rosa is the tallest girl in the class.


51. Irregular Forms

Some adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms.  The most common are:

Adjective/Adverb Comparative Superlative
good
bad
great
small
well
badly
much
little
bueno
malo
grande
pequeño

bien
mal
mucho
poco
better
worse
greater
less
better
worse
more
less
mejor
peor
mayor
menor
mejor
peor
más
menos
the best
the worst
the greatest
the least
best
worst
most
least
el mejor
el peor
el mayor
el menor
el mejor
el peor
el más
el menos

Note that the bueno and malo change according to gender and number while grande and pequeño change according to gender.  The adverbs (the last four) do not agree with the noun.


52. Clothing

apron el delantal pants los pantalones
barrette el pasador pin el alfiler
bathrobe la bata pocket el bolsillo
belt el cinturón purse el bolso
blouse la blusa raincoat el impermeable
boot la bota ring el anillo
bracelet la pulsera sandals las sandalias
brush un cepillo del pelo scarf la bufanda
buckle la hebilla shirt la camisa
button el botón shoe el zapato
cap el gorro shoelace el cordón
clothes la ropa shorts los pantalones cortos
coat el abrigo silk la seda
collar el cuello skirt la falda
comb el peine sleeve la manga
cotton el algodón slippers las pantuflas
dress el vestido soap el jabón
earmuffs las orejaras sock los calcetines
earrings el arete stocking la media
fashion la moda suit el traje
glasses los lentes sunglasses las gafas de sol
glove el guante suspenders los tirantes
handbag el bolso sweater el jersey
handkerchief el pañuelo sweatsuit el chándal
hat el sombrero swimsuit el traje de baño
jacket la cazadora tie la corbata
jeans los vaqueros T-shirt la camiseta
mittens los mitones umbrella el paraguas
necklace el collar underwear la ropa interior
nightgown el camisón waistcoat el chaleco
overcoat el sobretodo watch el reloj
pajamas los pijamas wool la lana


53. To Wear

llevar - to wear
ponerse - to put on
llevo
llevas
lleva
llevamos
lleváis
llevan

me pongo
te pones
se pone
nos ponemos
os ponéis
se ponen

 

You don't use possessive pronouns when referring to parts of the body or clothing, but you do use the definite article.


54. Future Tense

The future of regular verbs is formed by adding the following endings to the infinitive:


-ás
-emos
-éis
-án

Many verbs use irregular stems in the future tense, but they still use the regular endings from above:

caber (to fit) cabr-
decir (to say, tell) dir-
haber (to have) habr-
hacer (to do, make) har-
poder (to be able) podr-
poner (to put, place) pondr-
querer (to want) querr-
saber (to know) sabr-
salir (to leave, go out) saldr-
tener (to have, to own) tendr-
valer (to be worth) valdr-
venir (to come) vendr-


55. Adjectives

Adjectives must agree in gender (masculine or feminine) and number (singular or plural) with the noun they describe, and they are placed after the noun. In general, masculine adjectives end in -o and feminine adjectives end in -a: blanco and blanca (white). Adjectives that end in -ín, -án, -ón, -dor, -tor and -sor in the masculine will add an -a for the feminine. Adjectives that end in -ete for the masculine will end in -eta for the feminine. Adjectives of nationality add -a to the masculine to form the feminine: francés - francesa (French). Notice that when you add -a, the adjective is no longer written with an accent. To form the plural of adjectives, follow the same rules for forming the plural of nouns.

Most adjectives follow the noun they describe, but the following adjectives drop the final -o if placed before a masculine noun in the singular: bueno - good; malo - bad; alguno - some; ninguno - no, any; uno - one; primero - first; tercero - third

When grande means great, it precedes the noun and drops the -de before a singular noun of either gender.  Santo (saint) drops the -to before all masculine nouns, except those beginning with Do- or To-.


56. More Adjectives

large grande high, tall alto
small pequeño low, short bajo
long largo pretty lindo, bonito
short corto beautiful hermoso
good bueno ugly feo
bad malo wide ancho
rich rico narrow estrecho
poor pobre heavy pesado
strong fuerte light ligero
weak débil hard duro
easy fácil soft blando
difficult difícil sweet dulce
fat gordo sour agrio
thin delgado bitter amargo

When any form of the definite article is placed before an adjective, then the adjective becomes a noun.

pobre - poor; el pobre - the poor man

If the neuter article lo is placed before a singular masculine adjective, the latter becomes an abstract noun.

bueno - good; lo bueno - the good (everything that is good)


57. Sports

ball la pelota
pool la piscina
game el juego
basketball el baloncesto
match el partido
tennis el tenis
team el equipo
swimming la natación
player el jugador
boxing el boxeo
soccer el fútbol
wrestling la lucha
football el fútbol americano
hockey el hockey
baseball el béisbol
volleyball el vóleibol
racket una raqueta
net una red
ball (small) una pelota
cleats unos zapatos de fútbol
bat un bate
skis unos esquís
glove un guante
ski poles unos bastones
ball un balón
boots unas botas
basketball hoop una canasta
helmet el casco


58. Nature

air el aire grass la hierba sea el mar
archipelago el archipiélago gulf el golfo shadow la sombra
bank la orilla hail el granizo sky el cielo
bay la bahía hay el heno snow la nieve
barn el granero high tide la marea alta soil el suelo
beach la playa hill la colina south el sur
branch la rama ice el hielo spring (water) la fuente
bridge el puente island la isla star la estrella
bud el capullo isthmus el istmo stem el tallo
bush el arbusto jungle la jungla storm la tormenta
cape el cabo lake el lago strait el aprieto
cave la cueva leaf la hoja stream el arroyo
city la ciudad light la luz street la calle
climate el clima lightning el relámpago sun el sol
cloud la nube lily la azucena sunflower el girasol
coast la costa low tide la marea baja thaw el deshielo
comet el cometa meadow el prado thunder el trueno
constellation la constelación moon la luna tornado el tornado
country el país mountain la montaña tree el árbol
country(side) el campo mountain range la sierra trunk el tronco
current la corriente mouth (river) la desembocadura tulip el tulipán
daffodil el narciso mud el barro valley el valle
daisy la margarita nature la naturaleza view la vista
darkness la obscuridad north el norte water el agua (f)
desert el desierto peninsula la península fresh water el agua dulce
dew el rocío plain el llano salt water el agua salada
dust el polvo planet el planeta watering can la regadera
earth la tierra plant la planta waterfall la cascada
east el este pond el estanque wave la ola
farm la granja pot (for plants) la maceta weather el tiempo
field el campo rain la lluvia west el oeste
flower la flor rainbow el arco iris wind el viento
foam la espuma river el río world el mundo
fog le niebla rock la roca    
foliage el follaje root la raíz    
forest el bosque rose la rosa    
frost la helada sand la arena


59. To Say and to Go Out

decir - to say
salir - to go out
digo
dices
dice
decimos
decís
dicen

salgo
sales
sale
salimos
salís
salen


60. Para vs. Por and Pero vs. Sino

Para is used to express: use or destination (for), purpose (in order to); point of future time (for, by) and to be about to (estar para + infinitive - though this is not used in all dialects of Spanish.)

La carta es para Concha.  The letter is for Concha.
Estudia para aprender.  He studies in order to learn.
Lo tendré para el martes.  I will have it by Tuesday.
Juan está para salir.  John is about to leave.

Por is used to express:  a place through or along which; expressions of time (in, during, at); exchange, price (for); unit of measure (by, per); way or means (by); because of, on account of, for; to go for, to send for; on behalf of, for the sake of; motive, reason.  It is also used after a passive verb to indicate the agent (by) and estar por + infinitive indicates what remains to be done or to be in favor of.

por el pueblo  through the town
por la mañana  in the morning
Pagó un peso por el libro.  He paid a dollar for the book.
Se vende por libras.  It's sold by the pound.
Voy por tren.  I'm going by train.
Voy por Alicia.  I'm going for Alice.
Voté por Juanita.  I voted for Juanita.
Fue escrito por Cervantes.  It was written by Cervantes.
La carta está por escribir.  The letter is yet to be written.
Estoy por escribirla.  I am in favor of writing it.

Pero (but) usually follows an affirmative expression, but may follow a negative statement if the verb of the first clause is repeated, or if another verb follows.

Bebe leche pero no bebe café.  He drinks milk, but he does not drink coffee.

Sino (but) is only used in negative sentences of contrasting statements when the verb of the first clause is understood but not repeated.

No bebe café sino leche.  He does not drink coffee, but milk.

61. Object Pronouns

Subject Direct Indirect Object of Prepositions
yo I me me me to me me
you te you te to you ti you
él he/it lo him/it le to him/it él him/it
ella she/it la her/it le to her/it ella her/it
Usted you la you le to you Usted you
nosotros (as) we nos us nos to us nosotros (as) us
vosotros (as) you os you os to you vosotros (as) you
Ustedes you los, las you les to you Ustedes you
ellos (as) they los them les to them ellos (as) them
  1. An object pronoun generally precedes the conjugated verb, except if is used in an affirmative command, with an infinitive or gerund.  Then it is attached to the verb as one word.  me Ud. el libro.  Give me the book.

  2. When you have more than one pronoun, the indirect comes before the direct.  If both pronouns begin with the letter l, then the first one is changed to se.

  3. When one or two object pronouns follow and are attached to the verb form, an accent mark must be added to retain the original stress of the word.

  4. For clearness or emphasis, the prepositional form of a plus an object of a preposition may be used.  Nos envió a Ud.  He sent us to you.

  5. When the preposition con (with) precedes me or te, the words change to conmigo (with me) and contigo (with you).


62. Parts of the Body

ankle el tobillo fever la fiebre pain el dolor
arm el brazo finger el dedo nose la nariz
artery la arteria fist el puño palm la palma
back la espalda flesh la carne pulse el pulso
beard la barba foot el pie rib la costilla
belly el vientre forehead la frente shin la espinilla
bladder la vejiga gum la encía shoulder el hombro
blood la sangre hair el cabello / el pelo skeleton el esqueleto
body el cuerpo hand la mano skin la piel
bone el hueso head la cabeza skull el cráneo
brain el cerebro health la salud sole la planta
breast el seno heart el corazón spine la espina dorsal
breath el aliento heel el talón stomach el estómago
calf la pantorrilla hip la cadera tear la lágrima
cheek la mejilla intestine el intestino temple la sien
chest el pecho jaw la quijada thigh el muslo
chin la barba / la barbilla kidney el riñón throat la garganta
coccyx el coxis knee la rodilla thumb el pulgar
cold el resfriado leg la pierna toe el dedo del pie
complexion la tez lip el labio tongue la lengua
cough la tos liver el hígado tooth el diente
disease la enfermedad lung el pulmón vein la vena
ear la oreja moustache el bigote wound le herida
elbow el codo mouth la boca waist la cintura
eye el ojo muscle el músculo wrist la muñeca
eyebrow la ceja nail la uña    
eyelid el párpado neck el cuello    
face la cara nerve el nervio    

To express pain, use an indirect object pronoun + duele(n) + body part.

Me duele la cabeza.  My head hurts.
Le duelen los pies.  His feet hurt.


63. Asking Questions

Simply raise your voice at the end of the sentence.
Place the predicate in front of the subject of the sentence.
Add no? or verdad? or no es verdad? to the end of the statement.  These translate to many phrases in English, such as Isn't it?  Aren't you?  Don't you?  Didn't he?  Isn't she? etc.


64. To Give and to Bring

dar - to give
traer - to bring
doy
das
da
damos
dais
dan

traigo
traes
trae
traemos
traéis
traen


65. Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun connects a dependent clause to a main clause and refers to something already mentioned (the antecedent.)  This pronoun may serve as the subject or object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.  Que and quien are the most commonly used relative pronouns.

Que (who, whom, that, which) refers to persons or things, except after a preposition, when it refers to things only.  El que (and its forms - la que, los que, las que) and el cual (and its forms - la cual, los cuales, las cuales) may replace que or quien.  These pronouns are used for clearness when there are two antecedents, and with prepositions.

La casa en que vivo es pequeña.  The house in which I live is small.
He visitado la ciudad cerca de la cual vive.  I visited the city near which he lives.

Quien (-es) (who) is used in a supplementary clause.  When used with a preposition, it means whom.  Quien (-es) is often used in place of el que and its forms as well, when it means one who, those who, etc.

Lo que and lo cual (which) refer to the whole sentence.

Cuyo (-a, -os, -as) is a possessive adjective and it agrees in gender and number with the thing possessed, which is always the word that follows it.


66. Disjunctive Pronouns

Disjunctive pronouns are used independently of the verb.  They are the pronouns which follow prepositions, or show emphasis.  


ti
él
ella
Usted
nosotros (-as)
vosotros (-as)
ellos
ellas
Ustedes

Ello is also used as a neuter pronoun meaning it.   can mean yourself, himself, herself, yourselves or themselves.  When con combines with mí, ti or , the words become conmigo, contigo and consigo.  For clearness, the forms of mismo (-a, -os, -as) can be added to these pronouns.


67. To Hear, to Smell and to See

oír - to hear
oler - to smell
ver - to see
oigo
oyes
oye
oímos
oís
oyen

huelo
hueles
huele
olemos
oléis
huelen

veo
ves
ve
vemos
veis
ven


68. Animals

animal el animal duck el pato lark la alondra sea gull la gaviota
ant la hormiga eagle el águila (f) lion el león seahorse el caballito de mar
antelope el antílope eel el anguila lizard el lagarto seal la foca
antenna la antena egg el huevo lobster (spiny) la langosta shark el tiburón
antler el asta elephant el elefante louse el piojo sheep la oveja
badger el tejón feather la pluma mackerel el escombro shrimp la gamba
bat el murciélago fin la aleta mole el topo skin la piel
beak el pico fish el pez monkey el mono slug la babosa
bear el oso flea la pulga mosquito el mosquito snail el caracol
bee la abeja fly la mosca moth la polilla snake la serpiente / la culebra
beetle el escarabajo fox el zorro mouse el ratón sole el lenguado
bird el pájaro frog la rana mule el mulo sparrow el gorrión
blackbird el mirlo fur el pelo mussel la almeja spider la araña
bull el toro gill la branquia nest el nido squid el calamar
butterfly la mariposa giraffe la jirafa nightingale el ruiseñor squirrel la ardilla
calf el ternero goat la cabra octopus el pulpo starfish la estrella de mar
carp la carpa goose el ganso ostrich el avestruz stork la cigüeña
cat el gato gorilla el gorila owl el buho swallow la golondrina
caterpillar la oruga grasshopper el saltamontes ox el buey swan el cisne
cheetah el guepardo hamster la marmota oyster la ostra tadpole el renacuajo
chicken el pollo hare la liebre parrot el loro tail la cola
chimpanzee el chimpancé hedgehog el erizo partridge la perdiz tiger el tigre
claw la zarpa hen la gallina paw la pata toad el sapo
cockroach la cucaracha heron la garza penguin el pingüino trout la trucha
cod el bacalao herring el arenque pig el cerdo tuna el atún
cocoon el capullo hoof la pezuña pigeon el pichón turkey el pavo
cow la vaca horn el cuerno pike el sollo turtle la tortuga
crab el cangrejo horse el caballo pony el potro wasp la avispa
crayfish el cangrejo hummingbird el colibri rabbit el conejo weasel la comadreja
crocodile el cocodrilo iguana la iguana raccoon el mapache whale la ballena
crow el cuervo insect el insecto rat la rata wing el ala (f)
deer el ciervo jellyfish la medusa rooster el gallo wolf el lobo
dog el perro kitten el gatito salmon el salmón worm el gusano
donkey el burro ladybug la catarina scale la escama zebra la cebra
dragonfly la libélula lamb el cordero scorpion el escorpión    


69. Suffixes

Suffixes may be attached to nouns, adjectives or adverbs.  Unaccented vowels should be dropped before adding the suffixes.  The most common suffixes are -ito (a) and -cito (a).  They express size, affection, admiration, appreciation or pity.  The ending -ero (a) indicates the maker or dealer in charge of something.  To indicate where something is made or sold, add -ería.  When -eza and -ura are added to adjectives, they express abstract nouns.  When -dor is added to a verb (minus the final letter), it indicates the performer of the action.


70. Subjunctive Mood

The subjunctive is not used very often in English, but it is very common and important in Spanish. Some command forms are actually the subjunctive, so the formation of the present subjunctive should not be too difficult. Start with the first person singular yo conjugation in the present indicative tense, remove the final -o and add these endings:

Present Subjunctive

-ar verbs
-er and -ir
-e
-es
-e
-emos
-éis
-en
-a
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an

(Notice that -ar verbs use -e and -er/-ir verbs use -a)

Usually when there is an irregular spelling change in the present indicative of a verb, that form will be used for the stem of all of the subjunctive forms. (Review #29 from Spanish I) Verbs than end in -erir, -ertir, or -entir use two different irregular spellings in the present subjunctive:

mentir in present subjunctive
mienta
mientas
mienta
mintamos
mintáis
mientan

The past subjunctive is formed from the third person plural of the preterite. Remove the -on ending, leaving you with -ar and -ier, and add these new endings:

Past (Imperfect) Subjunctive

all verbs
-a
-as
-a
-amos
-ais
-an

An accent is added to the stem vowel as well in the first person plural form. Instead of hablaramos, it is habláramos; instead of comieramos, it is comiéramos, etc. Note that there is another way to form the past subjunctive (a different set of endings), but the endings given are used more often. You must always the past subjunctive after como si. Es como si fuera mi padre. It's as if he were my father.

The present perfect subjunctive is formed with the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb. Similarly, the past perfect subjunctive is formed with the past subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.

Present perfect subjunctive

Past perfect subjunctive
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
+ past participle   hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
+ past participle

You must always pay attention to the correct usage of verb tenses. When the verb of the main clause is in the present or future, then the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the present subjunctive. But if the verb in the main clause is in a past tense, the verb of the subordinating clause will be in the past subjunctive.


71. Irregular Subjunctive Mood

Many verbs are considered irregular in the present subjunctive mood. However, only six verbs (marked in grey below) do not follow the pattern described above when starting with the yo conjugation of the indicative. Nevertheless, these verbs are still somewhat easy to remember even if they don't follow the pattern because the imperative form will help you determine the stem to use for the subjunctive conjugation.

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be

des
demos
deis
den
diga
digas
diga
digamos
digáis
digan
esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan
haga
hagas
haga
hagamos
hagáis
hagan
vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pueda
puedas
pueda
podamos
podáis
puedan
ponga
pongas
ponga
pongamos
pongáis
pongan
quiera
quieras
quiera
queramos
queráis
quieran
saber - to know
salir - to go out
ser - to be
sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan
salga
salgas
salga
salgamos
salgáis
salgan
sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean
tener - to have
traer - to bring
venir - to come
tenga
tengas
tenga
tengamos
tengáis
tengan
traiga
traigas
traiga
traigamos
traigáis
traigan
venga
vengas
venga
vengamos
vengáis
vengan

Many verbs are irregular in the past subjunctive as well:

dar - to give
decir - to say/tell
estar - to be
diera
dieras
diera
diéramos
dierais
dieran
dijera
dijeras
dijera
dijéramos
dijerais
dijeran
estuviera
estuvieras
estuviera
estuviéramos
estuvierais
estuvieran
haber - to have
hacer - to do/make
ir - to go
hubiera
hubieras
hubiera
hubiéramos
hubierais
hubieran
hiciera
hicieras
hiciera
hiciéramos
hicierais
hicieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
poder - to be able to
poner - to put/place
querer - to want
pudiera
pudieras
pudiera
pudiéramos
pudierais
pudieran
pusiera
pusieras
pusiera
pusiéramos
pusierais
pusieran
quisiera
quisieras
quisiera
quisiéramos
quisierais
quisieran
saber - to know
ser - to be
tener - to have
supiera
supieras
supiera
supiéramos
supierais
supieran
fuera
fueras
fuera
fuéramos
fuerais
fueran
tuviera
tuvieras
tuviera
tuviéramos
tuvierais
tuvieran
traer - to bring
venir - to come

trajera
trajeras
trajera
trajéramos
trajerais
trajeran
viniera
vinieras
viniera
viniéramos
vinierais
vinieran
   


72. Uses of the Subjunctive

The main uses of the subjunctive include (generally, que will follow the verb):

1. After the verbs querer and desear (to want) when there is a change of subject (but use the infinitive if there is no change of subject)

2. When one person tells (decir) or asks (pedir) another person to do something.

3. After verbs of emotion or command, such as esperar (to hope), sentir (to be sorry), temer (to fear), alegrarse (to be glad), mandar (to order), rogar (to request), when there is a change of subject.

4. After dudar (to doubt) and other verbs expressing uncertainty (negative of creer), as well as after quizás, tal vez and acaso (maybe) to reinforce the idea of doubt.

5. After most impersonal expressions, such as es posible que / puede que (it's possible), es importante que (it's important), es necesario que / hace falta (it's necessary) if there is a subject for the subordinate verb.

6. In adjective clauses is the antecedent is indefinite

7. After certain conjunctions, such as para que (in order that), sin que (without), and antes que (before)

8. After time conjunctions, such as cuando (when), en cuanto (as soon as), hasta que (until), when future is implied.

9. After que in expressions of wishes or desires: Que aproveche! Have a good meal!

10. To translate the future tense in subordinating clause: Cuando sea mayor iré a España. When I'm older, I will go to Spain.

In contrary-to-fact conditions, the past subjunctive must be used in the if-clause (and the main clause is in a conditional tense)


73. Adverbs

Most adverbs are formed by adding -mente to the feminine singular form of the adjective.  However, two common adverbs that do not end in -mente are despacio (slowly) and demasiado (too much).

Adjective Adverb
correcto
fácil
claro
absoluto
rápido
correctamente
fácilmente
claramente
absolutamente
rápidamente
correctly
easily
clearly
absolutely
rapidly

Lo + adverb + que expresses how, while lo más + adverb + an expression of possibility is translated:  as ... as ...

lo bien que  how well
lo más pronto posible  as soon as possible


74. Passive Voice

In passive sentences, the subject receives the action of the verb.  In active sentences, the subject does the action.  However, the meaning of both sentences is the same.  The passive voice in Spanish is formed with a tense of ser and a past participle.  Ser should be in the same tense as the verb in its corresponding active sentence.  The agent is expressed by por if the action is physical; and by de if mental.  The past participle agrees in gender and number with the subject.  If you use estar instead of ser, the past participle is called the predicate adjective and it is not a passive sentence.

Active El viento destruye la casa. The wind destroys the house.
Passive La casa fue destruida por el viento. The house was destroyed by the wind.
Predicate Adjective Cuando la vi, la casa estaba destruida. When I saw it, the house was destroyed.


El niño fue castigado por su padre.
 The boy was punished by his father.
Rosa es amada por todos.  Rose is loved by everyone.


75. Uses of the Infinitive

The infinitive is translated as a gerund (the -ing form of the verb) after these words: el, al, a preposition, ver or oír.

El correr es buen ejercicio. Running is good exercise.

Partió sin hablar. He left without speaking.
Oigo cantar a Maria. I hear Maria singing.


76. Shopping

department store
el almacén
shop/store la tienda
shopping mall el centro comercial (open-air) market el mercado (al aire libre)
belt el cinturón (fixed) price el precio (fijo)
glasses las gafas sale la rebaja
gloves los guantes to bargain regatear
sunglasses los lentes de sol to spend money gastar

 


77. Post Office and Bank

post office el correo bank el banco
envelope el sobre (traveler's) check el cheque (de viajero)
mailbox el buzón to cash (a check) cobrar
mail carrier el cartero to save (money) ahorrar
stamps las estampillas to deposit depositar
package el paquete account la cuenta


78. Conditional Tense

The conditional tense expresses an idea dependent on a condition that is either expressed or understood. It can also refer to the past when it expresses probability.

To form the present conditional, add these endings to the infinitive for all three types of verbs. Verbs that had irregular stems in the future tense, also use that stem for the conditional tense.

-ía
-ías
-ía
-íamos
-íais
-ían


79. Infinitives followed by Prepositions

The following verbs require a, de, en or con when followed by another infinitive, although the preposition is not always translated into English.

Verb + a + another infinitive
Verb + de + another infinitive
acostumbrarse
aprender
atreverse
ayudar
comenzar
convidar
decidirse
dedicarse
empezar
enseñar
invitar
ir
negarse
persuadir
principiar
rehusar
resignarse
resistirse
resolverse
venir
volver
to become used to
to learn to
to dare to
to help
to begin to
to invite to
to decide to
to devote oneself to
to begin to
to teach to
to invite
to go to
to refuse to
to persuade to
to begin to
to refuse to
to resign oneself to
to resist
to resolve to
to come to
to return to

acabar
acordarse
alegrarse
aprovecharse
arrepentirse
cansarse
cesar
dejar
encargarse
gozar
jactarse
olvidarse
tratar








to have just
to remember
to be glad to
to profit by
to repent
to tire of
to cease
to cease
to take charge of
to take pleasure in
to boast of
to forget to
to try to







Verb + en + another infinitive

Verb + con + another infinitive
consentir
consistir
divertirse
empeñarse
esforzarse
insistir
ocuparse
pensar
persistir
tardar
to consent to
to consist
to amuse oneself
to insist on
to endeavor to
to insist on
to busy oneself
to think of
to persist in
to delay in

contar
contentarse
soñar







to count on
to content oneself with
to dream of







80. Office / School Supplies

pencil el lápiz dictionary el diccionario
eraser la goma tape (audio) la cinta
pen la pluma map el mapa
ink la tinta newspaper el periódico
paper el papel novel la novela
letter la carta backpack la mochila
notebook el cuaderno stapler la grapadora
book el libro scissors unas tijeras
81. Parts of a Car & Gas Station
car
garage
tank
gasoline
oil
air
grease
tire
spare tire
wheel
steering wheel
brake
speed
slow
danger
stop
go
service station
el coche
el garage
el tanque
la gasolina
el aceite
el aire
la grasa
la llanta
llanta picada
la rueda
el volante
el freno
la velocidad
despacio
peligro
alto
siga, adelante
la estación de servicio


82. Travelling & Vacation

passport el pasaporte airport el aeropuerto
customs la aduana parking lot el aparcamiento
arrival la llegada bus stop la parada
departure la salida traffic jam los atascos
(round-trip) ticket el pasaje (de ida y vuelta) map el mapa
luggage el equipaje countryside el campo
single/double room la habitación individual/doble mountain la montaña
train (bus) station la estación de tren (de autobuses) beach la playa
subway la estación de metro paths los caminos
to take a trip hacer un viaje vacation las vacaciones
to go on vacation ir de vacaciones to drive conducir
to pack hacer las maletas to visit visitar
to travel viajar to walk pasearse
to fly volar to get lost perderse


83. Cosmetics / Toiletries

shampoo el champú brush el cepillo
soap el jabón comb el peine
makeup el maquillaje toothpaste

la pasta de dientes

shaving cream la crema de afeitar toothbrush el cepillo de dientes
lotion la loción towel la toalla
nail polish el esmalte para las uñas electric razor la maquinilla de afeitar


84. Other Perfect Tenses

Beside the present and past perfect tenses, there are also the preterite, future and conditional perfect tenses. All are conjugated with a form of haber and a past participle.

The preterite perfect is formed with the preterite of haber + past participle, and it has the same meaning as the past perfect. But this tense is normally only used after conjunctions of time, such as así que, luego que, tan pronto como (as soon as); cuando (when); después (de) que (after); and hasta que (until).

The future perfect is formed with the future of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability, referring to the present.

The conditional perfect is formed with the conditional of haber + past participle and is also used to express probability, referring to the past.


85. Durations of Time

Ago : hace + a period of time
Se fue hace quince días. He left fifteen days ago.

Since / For : desde hace + a period of time (careful with verb tenses here: present tense in Spanish, present perfect or present perfect continuous in English)
No vienes a verme desde hace un mes. You haven't come to see me for a month.

In : dentro de + a period of time (time at which something will happen)
Te llamo dentro de media hora. I'll call you in a half hour.


86. Telephone

Hello Diga telephone book la guía telefónica
Hello (reply) Oiga yellow pages las páginas amarillas
This is... Soy... to transfer someone poner con alguien
phone card una tarjeta telefónica to call telefonear
phone booth una cabina to pick up descolgar
call una llamada to hang up colgar
ringtone el timbre del teléfono to leave a message dejar un recado
dialtone el tono de marcar to be very talkative hablar por los codos
wrong number un número equivocado to dial a number marcar un número
busy signal la señal de ocupado    

87. Exclamations

Exclamatory phrases, which express what a or how, begin with qué, cuánto, and cómo. Qué can be followed by a noun or an adjective. Sometimes tan or más are also used with the adjective to emphasize a defect or a quality. ¡Qué mujer! What a woman! ¡Qué familia tan unida! What a united family!

Cuánto expresses quantity, and agrees in gender and number with the adjective that follows. It can also be followed by a verb, in which case there is no agreement. Furthermore, lo que can replace cuánto when a verb follows. ¡Cuánta comida! How much food! / There's a lot of food! ¡Cuánto comes! How you eat! / You eat a lot!

Cómo expresses the manner in which something is done. It can only be followed by a verb. ¡Cómo baila! How he dances! / He dances well!


88. Colloquial Expressions

la pandilla group of friends ¡qué pasada! that's awesome!
el colega / el socio friend ¡qué rollo! it's boring!
el profe teacher ¡chulo! ¡chula! great!
el cole middle school ser un lince to be very clever
un(a) chaval(a) guy/girl llevarse un chasco to be disappointed
un tío guy estar hasta la gorra to be fed up
un ligue flirt ligar to flirt
un empollón hard-worker estar hecho papilla to be sad
un cabeza de chorlito scatterbrain estar hecho polvo to be tired
un cabeza cuadrada stubborn estar mal del coco to be crazy
un cara de mala leche mean look/face estar harto to be fed up

89. Aspects of Action

To express an action that is planned (going to happen): ir a + infinitive. Voy a acostarme. I'm going to go to bed.

To express an action that is just about to happen: estar a punto de + infinitive or estar para + infinitive. El avión está para aterrizar. The plane is about to land.

To express an action that repeats: volver a + infinitive. Vuelve a escribir su nombre. You write your name again.

To express an action that has just happened: acabar de + infinitive. Acabo de llegar. I just arrived.


90. Verbs of Feelings

Several verbs in Spanish that express feelings (pleasure, pain, etc.) have different word order than in English. These verbs have the same construction as gustar (#35): Indirect object + verb + subject. Me, te, le, nos, os, les are the indirect object pronouns. The verb is conjugated in third person singular or plural because it agrees with the subject, not the indirect object.

gustar to like dar asco to hate
apetecer to feel like dar miedo to scare
encantar to adore dar lástima to trouble
dar ganas to feel like doler to hurt

Te apetece salir. You feel like going out.
Le duelen los dientes. His teeth hurt.
Les da miedo la película. The film scares them.

You can also add a mí, a ti, a él, a ella, a usted, a nosotros/-as, a vosotros/-as, a ellos, a ellas, or a ustedes before the indirect object for emphasis.

A mí me gusta el fútbol. Me, I like soccer.

Thanks to IE Languages for permission to use their vocabulary lists.